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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.04.21 17:04. Заголовок: Gallery Forests in South America


Hello!
I'm from Brazil and I a biologist with preference for birds. I already proposed some animals in the Neocene project, which I discussed through email with the Pavel Volkov. However, I decided to interact through the forum.
I have ideas for some animals and plants for South America. Some these ideas were associated with the gallery forest. This ecosystem exist around rivers in dry regions of South America, for example in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Would this ecosystem exist in the Neocene?
If yes, I have ideas for some species (plants and animals) that could live there.
For plants I was thinking about descendants of the Terminalia catappa ( a very common introduced species in Brazil), of the trumpet trees and of the African oil palm (it is cultivated in Brazil). These trees could be common species of flora found in the galery forests of Neocene.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.04.21 17:35. Заголовок: JOrnitho Hi! I'..


JOrnitho
Hi! I'm the forum's moderator. Nice to see foreign people here and... welcome! Please go ahead to describe your ideas in detail.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.04.21 17:57. Заголовок: I'll start with ..


I'll start with the trees

Riverine almond (Neoterminalia riparia)
During the Holocene, the man introduced many species, animal and vegetal, for ornamental purposes. The tree Terminalia catappa was one of these introduced species. During the mid-20th century of the human epoch, this tree was used extensively in Brazilian urban landscaping, since being a rare case tropical deciduous, their fallen leaves would give a "European" flair to the street. This species adapted very well and in the Neocene they give rise to the Genus Neoterminalia, with the riverine almond being the type species. This tree forms, together with the violet trumpet tree (Tabebuia violacea) and the dendém oil palm (Elaeis dendem), the gallery forests that exist near the river courses of Central and Northeastern South America, being only fond in those riparian areas.
The riverine almond grows to 30 m tall, with an upright, symmetrical crown and horizontal branches. As the tree gets older, its crown becomes more flattened to form a spreading, vase shape. Its branches are distinctively arranged in tiers. The leaves are large, 23 cm long and 12 cm broad, ovoid, glossy dark green, and leathery. They are dry-season deciduous; before falling, they turn yellow-brown.
The trees are monoecious, with distinct male and female flowers on the same tree. Both are 3 cm in diameter, whitish pink, fragrant with no petals; they are produced on axillary or terminal spikes. The fruit is a drupe 6 cm long, green at first and red when ripe, containing a single seed. The fruit is dispersed by water and animals. In comparison with that of their ancestors, the fruits are meatier; this way the animal will consume the pericarp leaving the seed. The flowers are pollinized by insects.
Others species in this Genus are:
Costal almond (Neoterminalia atlantica)
Larger than the riverine almond, growing to 40 m tall, this species are components of the Atlantic forests of Southeastern South America. Their 5 cm long fruits are yellow when ripe and the flowers are white with no petals. This species lost less leaves in dry seasons than the riverine species.

Violet trumpet tree (Tabebuia violacea)
The Genus Tabebuia of the family Bignominaceae survived the Holocene, and in the Neocene a new species appeared, the violet trumpet tree. This species is native to savannas, plains and semi-open areas of South America, but being found in larger numbers, together with the riverine almond (Neoterminalia riparia) and the dendém oil palm (Elaeis dendem), in the gallery forests of Central and Northeastern South America.
The violet trumpet tree is a dry season-deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall. The leaves are palmately compound, with six leaflets, each leaflet 15 cm long, green with silvery scales both above and below. The tree crown is wide, with irregular, stratified ramification and only few thick branches. The bark is dark grey and may be vertically fissured.
Flowering occurs in dry periods, when the tree has none, or very few, leaves. The flowers are bright violet, up to 5 cm diameter and are produced several together in a loose panicle. The polinization is realized by birds and insects. The long and slender fruit capsules can measure up to 30 cm. After the drying fruit dehisces the anemochorous, winged seeds are released. They can be transported by the wind for long distances.

Dendém oil palm (Elaeis dendem)
During the Holocene, the man introduced many species, animal and vegetal, for different porpoises. The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was introduced in many regions to the production of vegetal oil. The species introduced on South America survived on the Neocene, giving raise to the dendém oil palm. The word dendém was used as a popular name for its ancestor in Brazil. This plant is native to the tropical regions of South America, being commonly found near rivers of Central and Northeastern regions of the continent, together with the riverine almond (Neoterminalia riparia) and the violet trumpet tree (Tabebuia violacea).
Mature palms are single-stemmed and grow to 20 m tall. The leaves are pinnate and are 5 m long. A young palm produces about 30 leaves a year. Established palms over 10 years produce about 20 leaves a year. The flowers are produced in dense clusters; each individual flower is small, with three sepals and three petals.
The palm fruit takes 6 months to mature from pollination to maturity. It is reddish-yellow, measuring 25 cm, and grows in large bunches. Each fruit is made up of an oily, fleshy outer layer (the pericarp), with a single seed. Animals, such as the psittacids and monkeys eat these fruits. Some monkeys use tools to have access to the seeds.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.04.21 18:31. Заголовок: JOrnitho Good work!..


JOrnitho
Good work! Three in a row! Now we'll wait for the Author's (Pavel Volkov) response, OK?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.04.21 21:28. Заголовок: Oh, plants! That'..


Oh, plants!
That's good, because usually speculative projects focus on animals (mostly vertebrates), but plats represent live and evolving organisms.
As for gallery forests, there may be any bromeliad species also, and among them atmospheric plants of Tillandsia genus or any other bromeliads having a convergent similarity to "true" atmospheric tillandsia. Other epiphytes may be orchids (with hypertrophied bulb-like stems), seasonally growing epiphytic ferns (fronds die in dry season, but rhizome survives) and epiphytic cacti of Hylocereus tribe - descendants of Zygocactus, Epiphyllum, etc. In Russia these cacti are popular indoor plants, by the way.
Thinking about plants, we must remember also, that every plant species must have pollinators and seed dispersers. Sometimes they have very sophisticated adaptations to their way of life.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.04.21 01:56. Заголовок: I see the polination..


I see the polination of the riverine almond being made by insects, probably a species of small bees, while the dipersion of the fruits could be through the water, birds and mammals, perhaps a descendant of the agouti (Dasyprocta), these rodents store seeds in several different holes in the ground and since there is too many, they can't eat all.

The violet trumpet tree I think that could be polinated by bumblebee (Bombini) and birds (hummingbirds and other nectar eating birds), while the dispersion would be anemochourus, like it ancestors.

The Dendém oil palm could be polinated by insects, while the fruits would dispersed by birds and mammals, perhaps the same agouti descendant that store seeds in the ground and forget about that.

About epiphytes, there is a species of mistletoe cacti (Rhipsalis) that is common in Brazil, being found even in trees in cities. In cities, this species usualy is associated with Terminalia catappa.

Also I have read an article where the gallery forest are apointed as a corridor for fauna. The article was about this type of forest in the Cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) and concluded that these forests are favorable habitat for many species common to the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforest. For these species, the gallery forests likely serve as a dispersion corridors within the Cerrado. I think that it would also occur in the Neocene and with even more efficiency, since the humans aren't there anymore.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.04.21 18:57. Заголовок: The main question is..


The main question is: are possible modern ancestors of these plants able to survive in the world changed by human influence?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.04.21 19:29. Заголовок: The Terminalia catap..


The Terminalia catappa is an exotic species from Asia that is used as an ornamental species, being very common in the cities of Brazil and Suriname (what is problem because it attract bats due to the fruits). I think that this tree can survive due to being able to adapt to regions affected by the humans.
The oil palm is cultivated in South America for the use of its oil. Since the tropical enviroment is similar to that of their ancestral lands in Africa, I think that with the demise of humanity some individuals could survive, perhaps replacing native palm species that are endangered.
Some trumpet trees are threatened, but others are common to be used as ornamental species. So perhaps the species in the Neocene are descendants from these used in gardens and cities?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 29.04.21 04:33. Заголовок: For one of the polin..


For one of the polinators of the violet trumpet tree, I thought about a species of hummingbird, a descendant of the swallow-tailed hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). I also thought that this tree could be the principal species used by a colonial descendant of the monk parakeet as the place to build their nests.
I had ideas for the dispersors and predators of fruits of the riverine almond. They could be a descendant of the agouti, of feral pigs and psittacids.
My ideas for predadors of the fruits of the Dendém oil palm are psittacids and a descendant of the common squirrel-monkey (Saimiri sciureus) that would have learned how to use rocks to open the fruits.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.05.21 19:31. Заголовок: I finished the descr..


I finished the descriptions of the hummingbird responsible for the polination of the violet trumpet trees and some other animals that could live in the gallery forests:

Violet mirabilis (Mirabilis violaceus)
Even with the impacts caused by human activity during the Holocene, some species persisted. One of these species was the swallow-tailed hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura), which in the Neocene give rise to the genus Mirabilis. The type species of this genus is the Violet mirabilis which lives in the forests of the Atlantic coast of South America.
All members of the genus Mirabillis are sexually dismorphic. The males are large with 22 cm, they have a crest and a gorget with iridescent violet feathers. These feathers are also present in the belly, the rest of their body is bright green. Males also have a short forked tail with two long tail coverts, characteristic shared by all males of this genus. All females in the genus are similar; they are smaller than the males, with 14 cm and lacking the crest, gorget and iridescent feathers of the males and with a white underbelly and throat. The rest of their feathers are dull green. The females have a short forked tail, but lack the long tail coverts. Both sexes has a medium sized straight grey beak.
These hummingbirds mainly feed on nectar of flowering trees in the canopy of the forest. They also eat tiny insects.
Violet hummingbirds are aggressive, attacking birds twice their size. The breeding season occurs during all the year. In courtship, the male hovers in front of the sitting female and chases her through the air, and the two may perform a 'zig-zag flight' together. The nest is a cup-shaped structure lined with soft plant fibres and clad on the outside with lichen and mosses, held together with spider webs. It is placed on a horizontal twig in smallish trees. The female lays two eggs and only her is take care of them. The chicks hatch after 15 days; they are initially hairless, save for some grey down on the back, and have dark skin. They start to grow feathers 5 days after hatching, starting with the remiges. The young are fed 1-2 times per hour, and the female spends about half of the day brooding and feeding her offspring, and the other half flying around and feeding. The young fledge after 24 days but still return to the nest to sleep and be brooded for some more days; they are independent some 3 weeks after fledging. Two broods may be raised subsequently, sometimes reusing the nest; due to the prolonged breeding season. This species reach sexual maturity with 2 years and its lifespan is of 9 years.
Other species in the genus Mirabilis:
Blue mirabilis (Mirabilis caeruleus)
Living in the montane forests of Southeastern South America, males of this species are 21 cm long with iridescent blue feathers in the crest, gorget and belly.
Golden mirabilis (Mirabilis auratus)
Living in the savannas and woodlands of Central South America, males of this species are 23 cm long with iridescent yellow feathers in the crest, gorget and belly. This species is a common polinator of the violet trumpet tree (Tabebuia violacea)
Ruby mirabilis (Mirabilis puniceus)
Living in the Amazon forest, male of this species are 24 cm long with iridescent red feathers in the crest, gorget and belly.

Azure parakeet (Sociopsitta cyanea)
During the Holocene, human activities have caused the extinction of many species and the increase in the range of others, though the introduction of species in others places. The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) was a common pet, being transported to many other regions of South America and of the world. Some individuals turned feral and in the Neocene they give rise to the Genus Sociopsitta, with the azure parakeet being the type species. The name of the Genus refers to their highly social habits, these birds live in large flocks and make large communal nests. The habitat of the azure parakeet is the gallery forests of the savannas of Northeastern and Central South America.
The azure parakeet has 42 cm of length (including the long tail) and a wingspan of 90 cm. The male is slightly larger than the female. The plumage of both sexes is vivid blue, with the exception of their greyish blue breast. They have a large and powerful grey beak, which is used to break nuts and seeds. The legs and feet are brownish-black. They are noisy birds, vocalizing a lot while flying in their large. Their flocks can have from 50 to 100 individuals.
This bird eats seeds, fruits, flower buds and nuts. They use their powerful beak to break the hard shell of nuts and capsule fruits. The fruit most consumed by them is that generated by the riverine almond (Neoterminalia riparia), a descendant of the Terminalia catappa (a species introduced by the man in the Holocene), they will also consume the seeds of the violet trumpet tree (Tabebuias violacea). Both these two species are the main trees that form the gallery forests where the azure parakeet lives.
The azure parakeet mates for life. The nest is large structure made of sticks with separate entrances for each pair. The nests can cover completely the branches of trees. Other animals use these “apartments”, such as the grey-faced pygmy owl (Glaucidium griseorostrus), a species of owl that generally uses the nest of azure parakeet for reproduction. In these nests the female lays 8 white eggs, which are incubated only by her for 25 days. The chicks fledge in 68 days and are independent in 100 days. The lifespan of the azure parakeet is of 36 years.
Other species in the Genus Sociopsitta is the Emerald parakeet (Sociopsitta viridis). This species lives in the areas of the Gran Chaco. With 38 cm of length and a wingspan of 85 cm, this bird forms flocks with less individuals than the azure parakeet, with 40 to 60 birds. Their main characteristic is the bright green feathers in the back, nape and forehead. The other parts of their body are vivid blue, with the exception of their greyish blue breast.

Grey-faced pigmy owl (Glaucidium griseorostrus)
Even with the impacts caused by human activity during the Holocene, some species persisted. Owls of the Genus Glaucidium survived and in the Neocene a new species appeared, the grey-faced pygmy owl. This bird lives in the savannas, plains and semi-open areas of South America.
The grey-pygmy owl is small, with the females being slightly larger than the males, with 17 cm against their 15 cm of length. The head is rounded, with no ear tufts. As their name says, their facial disk is grey. The upper part of the body is relatively dark brown with small white spots. Wings are reddish-brown and relatively short. The tail is dark brown with five pale bars. The lower part of the body is white, with dark brown stripes. The throat shows a rounded whitish area. The legs are feathered, with bristled and yellowish toes with dark claws. The beak is yellow.
This species is crepuscular, but often hunts by day. It hunts a variety of birds, lizards, mammals, and insects. They are able to catch birds in flight. The flight is low to the ground and rapid with long swoops and small birds will mob at it while it is perched in a tree. Grey-faced pygmy owls can kill preys larger than them.
The grey-faced pygmy owl nests in tree holes and hollowed-out termite nests, however the individuals that live in the areas of occurrence of azure parakeets (Sociopsitta cyanea) will make their nests almost exclusively in the nest of these parakeets. Adults defend the nesting site with great aggression. The birds nesting together with the azure parakeets will defend not only their nests but he entire colony of parakeets. The pair will attack birds of prey, other owls, snakes and mammals. The owls will also attack and consume striped anguja (Anguja striatus), a species of predatory rodent that usually feeds on eggs and chicks.. This way both birds are benefited, the owls with a nest and the parakeets with protection of their eggs and young. This rodent is bigger than the owls, to kill it the birds attack constantly the rodent, forcing it to fall from a branch or to blood until die
This species is serially monogamous, forming bonded pairs for one or more breeding seasons. The male is territorial and may use the same nesting territory for up to seven years. The female lays about four to seven eggs in late winter to early spring. They are incubated for four weeks, starting when the third egg is laid. They hatch nearly simultaneously and the female remains with them for nine to ten days, being fed by the male. After three weeks the young are active and the female returns to the nest only to feed them and clean out waste. Fledging occurs at 30 to 34 days. The chicks remain close to the nest for a few days before departing. The lifespan of the grey-faced pygmy owl is of 16 years.

Common anguja (Anguja robustus)
Even with the impacts caused by human interference in the nature during the Holocene, some species are capable to survive and continue with their evolution. In the Neocene, a new genus of rodent appeared, the Genus Anguja, this name means rat in the Guarani language. The members of this Genus are all predatory rodents, acting like the carnivorous marsupial mice of Australia. The type species of this Genus is the common anguja, a species that lives in the coastal forests of southeastern and northeastern South America.
The male common anguja has 14 cm length, while the female has 12 cm. They are greyish brown, with pale grey undersides and feet. The tail is long, bushy, and flattened from base to tip. The ears are larger and rounded. Common anguja are good climbers and have sharp claws. They use their long tails for balance while climbing and jumping.
This rodent is a good hunter, specialized on hunting at night. Their diet consists mostly of insects, centipedes, arachnids and other vertebrates. They will attack nests of birds, eating eggs, chicks and sometimes the parents that are taking care of the young. The common anguja is resistant to the poison of some species of scorpions and spiders.
Common anguja has about two or three litters a year consisting of two to seven young. They have a gestation of 32–47 days, and the young are born in either late fall or early winter in dens dug by the parents. Living in pairs, the male gathers and provides food for the female while she is pregnant and taking care of her young. The common anguja is an altricial species; young rodents are naked with closed eyes when they are born, and weigh about three grams. Both sexes reach their sexual maturity at three months. Their lifespan is of 6 years, but many perish with few weeks and months.
Other members of the Genus Anguja:
Striped anguja (Anguja striatus)
This species inhabits the savannas of Northeastern and Central South America. The male has 16 cm of length and the female 13 cm, thus being the largest member of the genus. Their fur is yellowish brown with characteristic dark strips in the back. They attack the communal nests of azure parakeets, sometimes doing their dens there. The striped anguja is the favorite prey of grey-faced pygmy owl during nesting season.
Auburn anguja (Anguja rufus)
This species inhabits the forests of Southern South America. The male has 13 of length and the female 11 cm, thus being the smallest member of the genus. Their fur is reddish brown with pale grey underbelly. They prey mostly on invertebrates, sometimes eating small frogs and lizards.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.05.21 20:01. Заголовок: JOrnitho Great! Add..


JOrnitho
Great! Added to the catalogue.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 09.06.21 22:57. Заголовок: JOrnitho I know of t..


JOrnitho I know of the Neocene predatory corvids, but do you think that predatory "raptor-parrots" could be a possibility?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.05.21 21:38. Заголовок: Cool, I especially l..


JOrnitho!
Cool, I especially liked the angujas!!!

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.05.21 06:14. Заголовок: Another idea that I ..


Another idea that I had for an inhabitant of gallery forests:

Jurumi, the arboreal anteater-armadillo (Jurumi myrmophagus)
The human actions during the Holocene caused the decline of many species. In the Neocene, anteaters (Myrmecophagidae) died out, but new animals appeared and occupied their niche. One of these animals is the jurumi, a descendent of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) that is adapted to a semi-arboreal lifestyle and to eat colonial insects. The name jurumi, means tamandua in the Guarani language. The jurumi lives in tropical and subtropical forests and woodlands of South America, from the Atlantic coast to the foothills of the Andes, including the Amazon rainforest .
The jurumi has a head to body length of 47 cm and a tail with 68 cm. Jurumis have long ears and snout, but their eyes are small. This species depends on their hearing and smell to detect predators and to find food. The tongue is long and the saliva is sticky. Unlike their ancestors, the carapace of this species is reduced, being found only over the upper part of the back. The sides and lower back are exposed and covered by a short, pale grey fur. To protect themselves from predators, jurumis stand upright with their powerful forearms stretched showing their long claws. These animals can walk on all four, on the outside of the wrists to protect the claws, and upright as a biped, using the long tail to balance. The tail is semi-prehensile and is used to help climbing and also to give balance when they are in a tree.
Jurumis eat ants and termites, but they can also feed on larvae of other insects, beetles, worms and occasionally eggs and carrion. These animals extract their prey by using their extremely strong fore limbs to rip open nests and their elongated snouts and long tongues to lick up the insects.
This mammal is solitary and mainly nocturnal, but is occasionally active during the day. Jurumis nest in hollow tree trunks or in burrows, excavated by them using their strong forelimbs. Females are polyestrous; mating generally takes place in the dry season. The estrous cycle will last approximately about 42 days. Gestation ranges from 130 to 190 days. The female gives birth to triplets. After birth, the young remain in the burrow, living off the mother’s milk for about 4 months. They then begin to forage with the mother, eventually leaving after 1 year. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 2 years. The lifespan of this species is of 18 years.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.05.21 10:15. Заголовок: JOrnitho A good one..


JOrnitho
A good one! I added it to the catalogues.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.05.21 16:02. Заголовок: JOrnitho пишет: Jur..


JOrnitho пишет:

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Jurumi


I like it!!!

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 09.06.21 23:55. Заголовок: jorzek01 The NNeocen..


jorzek01
The Neocene has some predatory parrots: the Griffarrot (Carnopsittacus ferox) from the chapter "Shaggy gardeners" and the Eagle kea (Aquilopsitta horrida). However, I don't know if South America would have a predatory parrot.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.06.21 00:20. Заголовок: JOrnitho пишет: How..


JOrnitho пишет:

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However, I don't know if South America would have a predatory parrot



Snow parakeet (Leucopsitta nivalis) from chapter "Traveller of southern mountains" can eat carrion.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.06.21 16:23. Заголовок: wovoka пишет: Snow ..


wovoka пишет:

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Snow parakeet (Leucopsitta nivalis) from chapter "Traveller of southern mountains" can eat carrion.


Interesting. Perhaps an analague of the kea could live in the Andes.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.06.21 16:27. Заголовок: JOrnitho пишет: Per..


JOrnitho пишет:

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Perhaps an analague of the kea could live in the Andes.


Why not?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.06.21 18:29. Заголовок: JOrnitho Perhaps an..


JOrnitho

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Perhaps an analague of the kea could live in the Andes.


Why not? Only check for possible competition from other predatory birds already existing there.

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большой шрифт малый шрифт надстрочный подстрочный заголовок большой заголовок видео с youtube.com картинка из интернета картинка с компьютера ссылка файл с компьютера русская клавиатура транслитератор  цитата  кавычки моноширинный шрифт моноширинный шрифт горизонтальная линия отступ точка LI бегущая строка оффтопик свернутый текст

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