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Наблюдающий за летящими птицами




Пост N: 1711
Откуда: Россия, Чебоксары
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 19.07.10 20:27. Заголовок: Translator's shelter (продолжение)


То бишь "Приют Переводчика". Тема для обсуждения переводов:
1) Проекта "Неоцен" на иностранные (от английского и немецкого до монгольского и квэньи) языки.
2) Иностранных проектов и книг соответственно на русский.
3) Обогащение лексикона сочными испанскими ругательствами и проч.
Всех Михаилов Лозинских и Даниэлей Штайнов от биологии ласкаво просимо.

Никогда не бойся делать того, чего не умеешь. Помни: Ноев Ковчег построил любитель. Профессионалы построили "Титаник".

Помню, что в простоте моей я был поражен тем, почему каждый джентльмен не становится орнитологом. (С) Ч. Дарвин.
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Пост N: 1954
Откуда: Царство русского медведя, Саратов
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 06.07.11 19:05. Заголовок: Предлагаю перевести ..


Предлагаю перевести данную статью Кассандры Ривер и выложить её на сайт неоцена.

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Пост N: 1771
Откуда: Царство русского медведя, Саратов
Рейтинг: 10
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.05.11 10:15. Заголовок: valenok пишет: Эти..


valenok пишет:

 цитата:

Этим словом обозначают половой акт, и вообще это глагол.


Да? Извини, не знал?
valenok пишет:

 цитата:


И вообще: это шутка была - про ругательства!



Сирьёзна, что ли?

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Пост N: 9912
Откуда: Россия, Москва
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 11.07.14 20:31. Заголовок: Товарищи! А не перев..


Товарищи! А не перевести ли нам Снайад? =) Он, вроде, не такой уж и большой по сравнению с тем же Спеком.

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Пост N: 877
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 11.07.14 20:44. Заголовок: Мех пишет: Товарищи..


Мех пишет:

 цитата:
Товарищи! А не перевести ли нам Снайад? =) Он, вроде, не такой уж и большой по сравнению с тем же Спеком.


У меня тоже такая мысль возникла. Может сначала спросить у Коземена?

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Пост N: 9914
Откуда: Россия, Москва
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 11.07.14 22:33. Заголовок: Думаю, он не будет п..


Думаю, он не будет против %) А кто будет спрашивать? В принципе, могу и я, ибо всё равно собираюсь поделиться своими мыслями, но это ещё когда случится.


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Пост N: 1
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 06.01.15 05:36. Заголовок: Я постараюсь, чтобы ..


Я постараюсь, чтобы перевести некоторые главы

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Из скромности умолчу.




Пост N: 4458
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 09.01.15 22:25. Заголовок: It would be great, b..


It would be great, but there may be any difficulties in translation via online translators, because of the structure of Russian language and the imperfection of translating programs.

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Пост N: 5
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.01.15 06:53. Заголовок: True, but even if th..


True, but even if the translated grammar is imperfect, the words are usually correctly provided and generally easy to rearrange into grammatically-sound English sentences.

for example, here is a translation of the charibda (Ichthyocharibda pelagica) I recently performed. Tell me if any of the information is incorrect.

Charibda (Ichthyocharibda pelagica)
Order: Pipefishes (Sygnathiformes)
Family: Charibda fishes (Ichthyocharibdidae)
Habitat: sea waters of The Southern hemisphere in areas of temperate and cold climate.
Evolution can be compared to a kind of game, where on par with the rules and regularities is the element of chance. It is for this reason that among the inhabitants of earth can sometimes appear bizarre and extravagant creatures, adapted, however, to their habitats.
One of these experiments in evolution is the North Atlantic Sea Wyvern (Vivernocampus titan) – a huge fish which is a descendant of the sea horse. In the Southern Hemisphere the whim of evolution has caused the appearance of another being, equally bizarre and distantly related to this species. The cold sea waters of the Southern hemisphere are inhabited by the charibda – a giant pelagic needle-shaped fish reaching the length of 3 meters with a thickness up to 20 cm. Despite its size, this fish is a very poor swimmer and is, in fact, technically plankton.
The charibda slowly drifts in the current, very rarely approaching the coast. Only in severe storms these strange fish are thrown to the shore, where they are helpless and quickly die.
The charibda in appearance resembles a snake, clad in a shell of bone rings. The shell’s scutes, however, are very thin, and on the lower side of the body they are even reduced. The buoyancy of the fish is provided by a fatty liver and a large amount of fat in the body. The weight of the fish is almost equal to that of water, and the charibda can easily maneuver in water. But its muscles are very weak and impregnated with fat, so the fish is unable to swim against the current.
The spine of the fish is very flexible, so it can roll up into rings and knots, rubbing on its own body and getting rid of parasites. The tail is a little less than two thirds the length of the fish.
Charibda fins are relatively small in size. The caudal fin is reduced to one short, thick spine. The dorsal fin is fan-shaped, with a strong fleshy base. This is the main propulsion of the fish; making undulating waves of the dorsal fin, the charibda can slowly move through the water column. Broad pectoral fins-also with strong bases-are turning rudders and help the fish keep its balance.
The head of the charibda bears features characteristic to members of the order. The fish has movable large eyes which can be rotated in different directions. The snout is an elongated, conspicuous tube, with a small mouth at the end. The gill covers form a suction device. Abruptly uncovering them, the fish can draw in water as well as food items.
The charibda feeds exclusively on planktonic organisms: jellyfish, salps, worms, and crustaceans. When feeding the fish sucks them in entirely, hence the name. The gills of young fish form a filter device, allowing them to pump in a large volume of water and suck in clusters of small animals: crustaceans and fish fry. The charibda is immune to the poison of jellyfish and planktonic starfish.
The charibda has a soft colouring: silvery-gray with a greenish tinge; fins are transparent. Males and females do not differ in color.
Charybda reproduction is confined to the spring. Males and females find each other by smell and a male wraps his tail around a female, waiting for her mature eggs. At this time he drives away rivals with his head. The fecundity of this species is very high: up to 150,000 eggs. The female lays her eggs in the male’s brood pouch and does not care for her offspring. The inner surface of the brood pouch is covered with villi, which grow through the blood vessels of the eggs and provide them with extra food.
Juveniles break out of their eggs after 15-20 days and after another 2 days they leave the brood pouch. The length of the fry at the exit from the pouch is 3 mm. They passively float in the water and only eat prey which is in close proximity to the mouth. A significant proportion of young fish die before reaching even a the fifth of the length of an adult. Sexual maturity occurs in young fish at the age of 3-4 years; a lifetime is more than 50 years.


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Из скромности умолчу.




Пост N: 4464
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 18
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.01.15 20:53. Заголовок: Ok, thank you for wo..


Ok, thank you for work. I'll check it sooner or later.
Translation is the weak spot of the project, and because of it every kind of help is important. But I must say, I'll add the translation of the description when some more translations will be done - just to reach the usual volume of the addition to the project. Ok for you?

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Пост N: 6
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.01.15 21:34. Заголовок: I'd love to add ..


I'd love to add more translations, but it can take hours to get just one done. Nevertheless, I will try to work on as many as possible, maybe a couple a week? Also, I'm slowly but steadily translating the entirety of chapter 28. I'll probably post the finished work as a Microsoft word document.

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Из скромности умолчу.




Пост N: 4466
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.01.15 21:46. Заголовок: Oh, you may work as ..


Oh, you may work as you like. I think there is always anything else to add to the site.
As for "Pirates of Caribbean Sea", I'd like to say something about the names of the animals described there:

Astarotus (Astarotus diabolicus) - after the fallen angel
Pike live-bearer (Sphyraenesia ferox)
Lancemouth (Poecibelone angustignathus) - name is mentioned in some translated parts of the project.
Flying live-bearer (Thoracilia volans) - maybe, any other English name?
Acrobatic live-bearer, headstanding live-bearer (Algopoecilia acrobata)
Whale-headed phytopoecilius (Phytopoecilius ceticephalus)
Sea swift (Priapophyllum apodipterus) - maybe, swiftfish?
Shark catfish (Arioselache carcharinomorphus)
Sea spinach (Thalassolatucca crystallophylla)

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Пост N: 7
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 11.01.15 02:40. Заголовок: Thank you, those nam..


Thank you, those names seems to line up with what I've translated.
I also have another one-animal translation, this time the Zakolo spider (Zakolo saurophagus)

Zakolo spider (Zakolo saurophagus)
Order: Spiders (Sygnathiformes)
Family: Jumping spiders (Salticidae)
Habitat: Tropical forests of Africa.
In the Neocene epoch the jumping spider family experienced an explosion of species. Among its representatives appeared relatively large species, which could partially replace wolf and tarantula spiders in tropical habitats, but have not parted with these spiders’ characteristics of speed and vagrant lifestyles.
In the undergrowth of African tropical forests, and on the roots of large, mossy trees, lives one of the largest representatives of this family: the zakolo spider. This is a rather large spider with a body length of 7-8.5 cm, and a leg length of about 5 cm. The physique of the zakolo spider is quite massive: The cephalothorax is expanded and has a raised front, and the abdomen is relatively small (shorter than the cephalothorax), flattened, and with a rounded shape when viewed from above. The body of the female of this spider is brown with a few light spots at the front. A pair of big eyes look forward, providing great stereoscopic vision. They shine brightly and “glow” in the dark due to a layer of light-reflecting pigments. Two more pairs of small eyes are on the side of the cephalothorax, directed to the sides, as well as a pair of eyes looking back. The front pair of eyes are bordered by a white stripe that gives them the impression of eyes of an animal much larger. The pedipalps and the thickened base of the chelicerae are devoid of hairs, have a shiny surface, and are colored a bright red color. Claws at the end of the chelicerae are white, curved, and about 15 mm.
The male zakolo spider differs from the female in smaller size (a length of about 3-4 cm, usually less), a gracile physique, and a different color. He has brown upper parts of the cephalothorax and abdomen, but the sides are gray. On the tips of the front pair of legs he has a noticeable white ribbon edged with red hairs. During his “dance” in front of a female he holds his front legs lifted upwards and outwards, showing these signals to the female. His chelicerae and pedipalps are also bright red and lack hairs.
The zakolo spider attacks small vertebrates, or rarely large arthropods. Most often, it attacks small lizards; its bite kills prey within 10 seconds. In larger vertebrates the zakolo’s poison causes painful swelling. The spider prefers to hunt by jumping on prey from above: from tree roots or the branches of young, low trees. This species is diurnally active; at nights it builds a temporary shelter, weaving together several large dried leaves with a few threads.
The breeding season for this species is not emphasized, but in areas with seasonally dry climates most juvenile are common in the wet season. The female lays about 30 relatively large eggs and wears them with her in a cocoon of cobwebs. The male often flees after mating, but sometimes it becomes a victim of the female. Spiderlings appear within 10 days and are immediately cared for by the female. For the first few days they sit on their mother’s back and eat part of her prey by sucking up the victim’s tissue dissolved by the female’s poison. Gradually the spiderlings leave their mother and live independently. The most recent spiderlings leave their mother after their first molt. The first 3 molts occur every month, the following 4 are once a month and a half, and the eighth molt is two months after the previous one. After that, the growth of the spider stops and all the body’s resources are spent on reproduction. The female has time to bear up to three broods.

The idea about the existence of this species was proposed by Nick, the forum member.


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Пост N: 14
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 19.01.15 04:11. Заголовок: Velvet poison-bearer..


Velvet poison-bearer (Venenophorus holosericum)
Order: Euonychophora (Euonychophora)
Family: Diverse-legged peripatopsids (Heteroperipatopsidae)
Habitat: north of Meganesia, rainforests.
In the age of people there lived in New Guinea the Onychophora family of peripatopsids, which was characterized by reproduction by egg-laying. Their Neocenic descendants form a seperate family of diverse-legged peripatopsids, which is characterized by uneven development and the specialization of adhesive glands. One of the two adhesive glands (the left) has become a poisonous gland emitting a powerful nerve poison of viscous consistency, while the right remains a “glue gun” as at ancestral forms. The walking legs of diverse-legged peripatopsids have also undergone some changes, differing from the feet of ancestral forms that retain approximately the same structure along the entire length of the body. The two pairs of front legs of these animals were drawn together; they are elongate and grasping. In a calm state, they collapse into a spiral and are not involved in movement. The front part of the body when moving is slightly raised above the substrate.
These strange creatures move in two ways: by reductions of their skin-muscle bag (for hunting grubs in the soil) or by folding up like a leech or inchworm, when hunting for termites on the bark of trees. Following the hunting legs are two pairs of legs which have become very powerful and tenacious, their tips developing into horny claws. These legs form the front “attachment disk.” Several pairs of legs, following the front walking ones, are reduced, and next to them are lung bags. The last 4 pairs of legs had also undergone specialization: the last pair of legs became a cutting scoop, the penultimate were lengthened and turned into a kind of antennae, and the remaining two pairs of legs formed the rear attachment disk and gained strong claws.
The body length of the velvet poison-bearer reaches 10 cm. This animal looks like the caterpillar of some butterflies, but differs from them in its manner of movement. The underside of the animal is creamy white, and the top is red with a violet hue. The animal leads a nocturnal life and is only found in the day time in wet weather, after a rain.
In case of danger the velvet poison-bearer lifts up the front part of its body, spreading its trapping limbs and moving them in the air. In this case, the white body is visible in the low light of night. If this warning does not force the enemy to retreat, the animal splashes onto it a jet of poison, determining the direction of the “shot” by smell and movement in the air. This poison is very dangerous for animals with thin skin: predatory snails, amphibians, and small reptiles. Prolonged exposure to the poison can kill terrestrial arthropods (ingested into the body through the trachea or cuticles in the joints of the feet). For larger reptiles with thick scales, birds, or mammals the poison is dangerous if it gets into the eyes, nostrils, or mouth.
In the forests of northern Meganesia a close species lives: the drill poison-bearer (Venenophorus militaris), which behaves differently: it is a social species, forming clusters of a few dozen individuals. The body length of this species is much less: no more than 4 cm. Its body is colored a pale pearlescent pink. Drill poison-bearers creep in “caravans”, as some caterpillars of butterflies, keeping track of a creeping individual in front. Their main prey: termites. These velvet worms look for the termite trails in the undergrowth, and their perianal scrapers break through the roof of the gallery and they begin to hunt for working individuals. If they are attacked by soldier termites, the animals glue their legs with sprays of glue and eat the immobilized insects. Also, these animals are not afraid of ants and often feed near their trails. The drill poison-bearer’s sticky liquid is used for primitive forms of construction: they often make a shelter, sticking to the ground the leaf of a plant, or rolling it in half with the underside on the inside. This shelter always provides the optimum microclimate.

This species of invertebrate was discovered by Korshin D.E., a member of the forum.


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Пост N: 17
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 29.01.15 04:46. Заголовок: Floridian big-tongue..


Floridian big-tongued lamprey (Glossolampetra heliciphaga)
Order: Lampreys (Petromyzodontiformes)
Family: Northern lampreys (Petromyzodontidae)
Habitat: Florida, coast of Gulf of Mexico, Cuba and Great Antigua.
During the ice age at the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene the habitats of many representatives of cold-water flora and fauna extended further from the poles into the lower latitudes. At the end of the ice age the fates of species distributed during glaciation have developed indifferent ways: some retreated to the poles and became extinct in warmer climates, while others remained in the separate “shelters” of mountain ranges, while others have adapted to the warming and have become one of the components of the new subtropical or even tropical flora and fauna. One species of a small group of lampreys represents this kind of polar component in the tropical fauna of central and southern North America. This species, the Floridian big-tongued lamprey, flourishes thanks to an unusual feeding specialization.
The Floridian big-tongued lamprey is a small animal: the body length of an adult is about 15 cm. The mouth of the lamprey is a soft, round sucker ring with rows of small teeth. Also at this species there is a powerful tongue with large hooked corneous teeth, capable of extending far ahead of his mouth. This is due to the nature of the animal’s food: the Floridian big-tongued lamprey feeds on snails. She sticks her mouth to the cochlea, expands her mouth over the mouth of the shell, and deeply thrusts into the shell her tongue, and in one motion hooks and pulls the body of the mollusk out of its shell. After this the snail is swallowed whole and the shell is left intact. This species does not stick to living fish and only occasionally scrapes the meat of dead animals.
Unlike many lampreys, the Floridian big-tongued lamprey is colored quite vividly: on a pale yellow background brown spots of irregular shape merge into traverse bands separated by areas without spots. On fins small black specks are scattered.
Usually this animal burrows among plants or sunken leaves. The Floridian big-tongued lamprey shows the most activity at dusk. This species inhabits fresh and marine waters, easily withstanding considerable desalination. In the mangroves there are large individuals up to 20 cm long. With the ability to live in seawater this species is widely spread throughout the tropical waters of southern North America and the Caribbean.
Reproduction of the Floridian big-tongued lamprey occurs in fresh water. Because of this small islands, where there are not enough productive rivers, are a barrier to the dispersal of this species into South America. Before spawning the coloration of lampreys greatly changes: spots on the body merge into distinct transverse bands, the back darkens and a distinct black border appears on the fins. The lampreys stop feeding and their bowels begin to degenerate. Adults ascend the rivers and spawn in areas with soft ground and slow flow. The larval stage lasts up to 5 years. The ammocoetes eat mud and the rotting remains of small animals.


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Пост N: 18
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 30.01.15 04:54. Заголовок: Stripe-billed tucano..


Stripe-billed tucanops (Tucanops dimorphus)
Order: Cuckoos (Cuculiformes)
Family: Cuckoos (Cuculidae)
Habitat: tropical forests of Northern Meganesia.
In most cases, human activity led to a worsening of the situations of species of wildlife. But some species have learned from this many benefits, among them the large Channel-billed cuckoo (Scythrops novaehollandiae), adapted to life in modified human habitats. After the disappearance of people it became the descendant of an unusual bird, similar to a toucan: the stripe-billed tucanops that inhabits tropical northern Meganesia and around Arafura Lake and Lake Carpentaria.
This species is one of the largest representatives of cuckoos: its wingspan is up to 80 cm, and its weight is about 1 kg. The bird has elongated pointed wings and a fan-shaped tail.
In the color and size of species of birds is clearly pronounced sexual dimorphism. The male of this species is larger, bright and contrasting colored. The female is smaller (adult weight of about 800 g) and much more modestly colored. The plumage of the male mostly black, the ends of the feathers are white, the back is red. The area around the eyes of the male is covered with white feathers. The plumage of the female is brownish black with ripples. A characteristic feature of the appearance of these birds is a very large, tall, laterally compressed beak filled with light spongy bone tissue. On the male’s beak there is a horny ridge along the top side of the upper mandible. The coloring of the beak of the male is lemon-yellow with a red base, the female’s is a dull yellow. On the sides of the beak at the male and the female stretches several slanted strokes of black color, contrasting with the background color of the beak.
The stripe-billed tucanops is an exclusively carnivorous bird. This species feeds on small mammals, birds, reptiles and large insects.
Like its ancestor, this species is a brood parasite. A pair forms for several breeding seasons and controls a territory of 4 - 5 square kilometers at which the nests of species feed the juveniles of this cuckoo. Stripe-billed tucanops keep in the upper layer of the forest, without going down to the ground. A population of this species lives in mangrove forests separating the Arafura Lake from the ocean. A pair of birds keep contact with each other, calling to each other in loud shrill voices.
For breeding this species uses the services of various species of birds of medium and large size, including corvids. A pair of these birds puts in their nest up to 20 eggs per season, laying one egg a day. At this parental care does not end: a pair of these birds controls the territory where the eggs are laid, and expels from the territory of large birds of prey, which may threaten the foster parents of the chicks of this species. Also, these birds can attack wood mammals like cuscus and rats, who would ruin nests. At the appearance of these large predators the birds raise a collective alarm and harass them around the head with a team of bird flocks.
The nestlings of stripe-billed tucanopses develop very fast for such a large bird and hatch on the 12th day of incubation. They immediately throw out of the nest eggs and chicks of other, remaining the sole object of parental care. After 3 months, they are fully developed and have feathers. Juvenile plumage of this species gray with black flight feathers, identical for birds of both sexes. The beak has a brown color, black smears on it are not yet visible. After 2 months of independent living the young bird molts and acquires plumage characteristic for adult birds. Sexual maturity comes at the age of 6 months. By this time a young male grows a horny crest on the beak.

The idea about the existence of this species was proposed by Tim Morris, Adelaide, Australia.


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Пост N: 19
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.01.15 03:35. Заголовок: slight correction: w..


slight correction: when I was describing the tucanops's plumage, instead of "the ends of the feathers are white", it should say "the ends of the primary feathers are white".

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Пост N: 20
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.01.15 05:09. Заголовок: Multicolored tufted ..


Multicolored tufted crestbill (Cristoctenops polychromus)
Order: Passerine birds (Passeriformes)
Family: Crestbills (Ctenorhampidae)
Habitat: Zinj Land, tropical forests.
The Neocaenic family of crestbills is endemic to Zinj Land and is represented primarily by small and medium-sized forest birds. In this family several genera are in the natural group "paradise crestbills", among which are various types of different developments of bright colors and ornaments of feathers. Representatives of tufted crestbills develop on the head an erect or movable crest, supplementing the growth on the upper mandible typical of the family.
The multicolored tufted crestbill is one of the most colorful-looking members of the group. It is a bird the size of a small daw with plumage which combines several bright colors. The head of the male of this bird is painted in a charcoal black color with a greenish metallic sheen. Against this backdrop stands out the iris of the eye with a white or bluish color. The bird's beak and rounded horny outgrowth on the upper mandible are white. The outgrowth on the upper mandible is complemented by a thick black tuft on the crown and nape, the edge of which continues to the edge of the outgrowth. The back of the neck, back and wings of the male are colored bright green with a spotty pattern, which is formed by the brownish tips of feathers. The front part of the neck is lemon-yellow with a white bottom edge. The belly and under the tail of the bird is crimson-red; the tail is white. The female of this species is colored much more modestly: it is a dull green with a white throat and a black head. The beak and growth on her upper mandible are dark gray.
This species feeds mainly on small fruits and seeds, but often pecks insects crawling on plants.
A courting male utters a loud buzzing trill, sitting on a branch and leaves without showing itself. The female behaves secretly and her special cry reports to the male her presence. Hearing the cry, the male begins courtship displaying, dancing and bouncing on a branch with his wings spread. At that he shakes his head and fluffs yellow feathers on his neck.
The male of this species is not involved in the construction of the nest. His role in the preparation of nesting is reduced solely to fertilizing the female, but it is usually paired with only one female. This is due to the fact that after the start of the nesting the male takes care of a certain female. He collects insects and puts them in a special sublingual pouch that can be stretched. The male keeps on the edge of the nesting territory of the female and from time to time beckons her, uttering a particular sound. The female briefly flies off of the nest, flies to the male and receives a portion of the collected insects. She also comes while rearing offspring. Due to this feature a couple can bring up a brood of 7 - 8 chicks: more than that of other small crestbills. The juvenile plumage of young birds looks like the color of the female’s plumage, but males have darker heads. As the crest of the male grows to sexual maturity, at the same time his plumage acquires multiple colors.
Sexual maturity comes at the age of 11 - 13 months; a lifetime is approximately 8 years.


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Пост N: 4481
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.02.15 12:00. Заголовок: fanboyphilosopher пи..


fanboyphilosopher пишет:

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Multicolored tufted crestbill (Cristoctenops polychromus)



And now all six of your translated descriptions are added to the project. Some corrections had been made, but in general I love the quality of translations. Thank you!

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 04.02.15 02:30. Заголовок: thank you for your a..


thank you for your adding my translations. I'm surprised the usual translation volume is as small as six.

Mephistopheles’ toad (Bufo mephisto)
Order: Tailless Amphibians (Anura)
Family: Toads (Bufonidae)
Habitat: Philippines, riverbanks and thickets of large herbaceous plants.
In the human epoch a significant number of amphibian species became extinct due to habitat destruction and pollution. But some species due to human activities have greatly expanded their range, which gave them an advantage at the end of the era of man. Such species include the cane toad (Bufo marinus), which from the tropics of the New World settled around the world and has successfully taken root in places where it was not previously encountered. The efforts of people to exterminate this amphibian mostly proved unsuccessful. At the end of the global environmental crisis in different parts of the world there have been numerous descendants of this amphibian. One The Philippine Islands is found Mephistopheles’ toad - a large toxic species of amphibians.
The body length of this animal is more than 30 cm and its weight is up to 2.5 - 3 kg (female larger than the male). This is a massive short-legged animal: Mephistopheles’ toad cannot jump, but quickly walks "in a trot" and even runs "at a gallop" - the only thing that remains of her ability to jump. The appearance and color of this species is very recognizable. On the head of Mephistopheles’ toads grow hornlike thickenings over the eyes, which determined the name of the animal. The males are larger, and in the mating season also become bright orange, noticeable to potential rivals. The main body color is brown with bright red spots, the largest of which is located on the lower back and sides, like a saddle. At different subspecies coloring and pattern vary. The subspecies B. m. diabolicus north of the Philippine archipelago differs in a black background color with a lot of small white spots and white fingertips. At the southern subspecies, B. m. cernunos “horns" over the eyes double, and the skin is brown with small red dots. At the subspecies B. m. tuberculata from the sea coast of the southern Philippine archipelago the growths over the eyes are blunted, and on the skin of the parotid glands there are many outgrowths. The locally restricted subspecies B. m. satanas inhabits a small island on the southern coast. He has a very large size (weight up to 4 kg) and is a major predator on the island. It is characterized by brown color with red spots scattered mainly on the sides, and very large triangular growths on the eyes. All subspecies of Mephistopheles’ toads have a light belly, the color of which varies from white to lemon yellow.
These toads are predators that feed on small vertebrates. The jaws of the animal are shortened and strong and the snout is blunt. Mephistopheles’ toad ambush hunts small rodents and reptiles, and may eat a chick or a large insect. Near rivers, these frogs attack ground crabs and crush their shells with their jaws. The subspecies B. m. satanas is able to eat a bird the size of a pigeon and replaces on his island absent small predators. It is possible that competing species of predatory mammals were ousted by these amphibians and died out. The main hunting method of these sluggish animals is an ambush. Mephistopheles’ toad usually hides in the forest floor, often near water. Disguised, it is buried in the ground about halfway and threw on itself leaves and pieces of bark. The most actively this toad hunts is in the afternoon, when the heat of the day subsides, but it is not yet very cool. Some individuals remain active at dusk and in the early hours of the night, when small mammals leave their shelters.
At this species there are not natural enemies among large vertebrates, as Mephistopheles’ toad is poisonous, as its ancestor. The main part of the poison is contained in large parotid glands, but the poison is also produced by numerous skin glands. A captured toad strongly swells, utters loud gurgling sounds and "sweats", releasing the abundant poison glands of the skin. In addition, it can bite the enemy with strong jaws. This amphibian’s poison is its primary means of protection. Only eggs are vulnerable to predators (some of which even eat the tadpoles of this species), and the poison of the tadpole begins to produce an hour after hatching. For a while the tadpoles completing metamorphosis, as well as young toads, just having left the water are deprived of poison - this is due to the peculiarities of the physiological processes accompanying the restructuring of the animal. A few days after the completion of metamorphosis poison again starts to be developed in sufficiently protective quantities.
The breeding season of this species stretches over six months during the rainy season. At this time males occupy shallow water and compete in the volume of their voice. The courtship song of Mephistopheles’ toads is like the trill of birds, but continuous, monotone and drab. Fertility is up to 50 - 80 thousand eggs, incubation lasts 3 - 4 days. Tadpoles feed on microscopic algae, developing for about 10 weeks. Maturity of this species occurs at half a year of age, and the lifespan is 18 - 20 years.

The idea of the existence of this species of amphibians is proposed by Nick, the forum member.


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 04.02.15 05:51. Заголовок: Giant Fourseas solip..


Giant Fourseas soliphuga (Galeodes tetramarina)
Order: Soliphuges (Solifugae)
Family: Galeodids (Galeodidae)
Habitat: Fourseas area, zone of coastal thickets; forest areas at the west and south-west of area.
At the boundary of Holocene and Neocene inland seas in Eurasia have undergone drastic changes. During the ice age the seas dried up, replaced by deserts, and after the melting of glaciers the seas returned to form a large brackish body of water - Fourseas. In a corresponding manor the composition of the fauna has changed. Some species from arid zones have adapted to living in the new environment, and among them - the giant Fourseas soliphuga, a descendant of the Trans-Caspian solifuge (Galeodes caspius). Its ancestors adapted to life on the steppes, learning to occupy strangers’ holes, which was important in the dry climate of the glacial epoch.
This is a very large species of arachnid - the length of the body without limbs reaches 10 cm. The Cephalothorax is gray, the abdomen is black with a longitudinal red stripe. Limbs are gray, with darker tips. The entire body is covered with dense hairs, on the limbs the hairs are sparse and longer, performing tactile functions.
A distinctive feature of the giant Fourseas soliphuga is very large chelicerae, vaguely resembling the claws of some crabs. This species feeds on large arthropods (including their own kind), and occasionally small vertebrates (mice, shrews, young lizards and snakes). The Chelicerae are able to break beetle armor or defrock the bones of bodies of small lizards or snakes. In case of danger the animal raises on the two rear pairs of legs and widely spreads apart its front legs. At the same time the chelicerae open, and claws are folded. This species can issue chirping, rubbing its chelicerae against one another.
This species leads a nocturnal life, hiding during the day in the burrows of small animals or other shelters, which are converted to suit its needs. In burrows this animal also hibernates, demonstrating a strong attachment to the chosen habitats. To the east and north-east of its range the animal digs special wintering holes to the depth of a meter, beginning under a rock and going down vertically.
The giant Fourseas soliphuga lives in a seasonal climate, and therefore its reproduction has a clearly pronounced seasonal nature. This species breeds in August (in the western and south-western parts of its range earlier), with mating behavior resembling that of scorpions - male and female for some time crawl, having linked chelicerae and pedipalps. The female lays up to 30 eggs under rocks in a special chamber whose walls are reinforced with stones. Young solifuges hatch after hibernation in the spring, shortly after the convergence of snow in the northern part of the area, and in the south - about the middle of March.
This species has a large life expectancy - about 10 years, reproducing in the second year of life.

This species of spider was discovered by Nick, the forum member.


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 05.02.15 02:57. Заголовок: species of arachnid,..


species of arachnid, not spider. How did I miss that.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 05.02.15 06:17. Заголовок: Flabellitherium, fan..


Flabellitherium, fan beast (Flabellitherium semisolaris)
Order: Insectivores (Insectivora)
Family: Tenrecs (Tenrecidae)
Habitat: Madagascar, savannas of the western part of the island.
In the era of man tenrecs were among the typical fauna of mammals of Madagascar. This mammal group demonstrated a significant species diversity and differences in lifestyle. Among tenrecs existed arboreal, digging, aquatic and terrestrial forms. In the age of man there was a significant reduction in the number of these animals, and a number of species became extinct during the Ice Age at the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene. But the survivor species continued evolving, and among them appeared new and unusual forms, sometimes reaching large sizes. The species diversity of small and medium-sized tenrecs also increased, and among them appeared forms with unusual anatomical and behavioral characteristics. One of these species is the whimsical flabellitherium, the "fan beast", living in savannas in the west of the island.
The flabellitherium is a descendant of the common tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus), a widespread and easily adaptable species of this family. The evolution of this species went in the direction of strengthening of passive protection, and eventually on the plains of Madagascar appeared a tenrec similar to a porcupine. The flabellitherium is a chunky and sluggish beast; the adult weighs about 8 pounds and its physique resembles a small badger. If necessary, he can run fast for short distances, but cannot run for a long time. In fact, it prefers not to run away from enemies, and uses other methods of self-defense.
The back of the flabellitherium is covered with durable movable needles up to 20 cm, which provide it main protection from enemies. Needles also grow on the animal's head and neck, as well as a strip along the midline of the back to the base of the very short tail. At the base of the needles grow sparse and rigid elongated wool, visually enhancing the outline of the animal. Some needle are thickened and hollow - they play the role of rattles, further warning predators of intent of the beast to protect itself. The colouring of sides and belly of the flabellitherium is grayish-brown; on the back colors are more contrasting: a white background, on which are scattered black spots and smears of various shapes. Needles and wool between the needles are gray-white. This is warning coloring, reinforcing its threatening demonstration.
When frightened the flabellitherium raises upright its needles that stick out in different directions and makes the outline of the beast look like a fan. At the same time the flabellitherium stays sideways to the predator, so the black-and-white color of his back is clearly visible to the aggressor. Until the predator keeps its distance, the flabellitherium loudly hisses and squeals, occasionally slightly trembling. At this point the needles knock against each other, and a loud cracking sound is heard. If the predator attacks, the beast unfolds his needles and tries to prick. During a fight flabellitheriums bite strongly.
This animal has an elongated snout and a movable prominent proboscis nose. Its weak long jaws are armed with pointed teeth. Outwardly resembling a porcupine, the flabellitherium’s diet differs from it: this is a carnivorous species, feeding on insects, small vertebrates and carrion. On occasion, he willingly ravages bird nests.
Seasonality in reproduction at flabellitheriums is not expressed. This species does not form permanent pairs and each animal usually occupies a certain territory, banishing her relatives. A male finds a female ready to pair by smell and encroaching on her territory. It shows itself to the female, pacing in front of her on outstretched legs, slightly trembling and chattering its needles. At the same time it opens its needle fan and blocks the way of the female. If she tries to leave, the male rattles its needles stronger and runs at her head, trying to stop her. If the female remains in place, the male gradually calms down and lowers its needles, thus showing no aggression. After mating the pair diverges. The female can mate, even caring for cubs of its previous litter.
Pregnancy lasts up to 60 days; during the year the female can make 2-3 litters of cubs, and then rest for about six months. The female gives birth to 1 - 10 cubs in a hole that she digs herself or takes someone else’s. At birth, the cubs are hairless and blind, but within a few days after birth, they are covered with hair, and at the age of 2 weeks their eyes open and begin to grow needles. At the age of 6-7 weeks cubs can already leave the hole and walk through the territory with their mother, learning to search of food. Three-month young animals already leave their mother and live independently. At the age of 1 year, the animals reach sexual maturity. Life expectancy is 10 years.


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 06:11. Заголовок: I am nearing complet..


I am nearing completion of the translation of 'Pirates of the Caribbean Sea', but I am wondering what method to use for posting it here. Qip.ru is not letting me register to post documents, and the translation is much too complex to split up between posts. Any suggestions?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 06:20. Заголовок: It seems that your e..


It seems that your email has eluded my eyes for quite some time. I will likely use it.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 18:09. Заголовок: If you want, you may..


If you want, you may load your translation to any file service and send me a link here. I'll check your translation and will make a new page then.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 21:18. Заголовок: I have no experience..


I have no experience with file services at all, so I will prefer to simply use your email. Mine is neil.pezzoni@gmail.com, so look for a file from that within a month.

Running skimmer (Dolichogerris cursor)
Order: Bugs (Hemiptera)
Family: Water striders (Gerridae)
Habitat: Antarctica, stony areas with sparse grass near glacier edges.
Adaptive radiation of terrestrial water striders led to the emergence of various kinds of predatory bugs inhabiting a variety of habitats and using different tactics in search of prey.
On the surface of rocks warmed up by the summer sun hunts one of the representatives of terrestrial water striders – the running skimmer. This species is a small insect – the body length of an adult is about 12 mm. Its body is elongated, cylindrical, with a spherical head and big bulging eyes. Its front pair of grasping legs at rest are folded under its body. The second and third pairs of legs are of equal length and identical design. They are only slightly longer than the body. All individuals have wings.
The main body color is gray or brownish, the color dominant in a given area of rocks. The upper side of the body is red, but it is noticeable only during flight or the threatening demonstrations of the insect.
Waiting for prey, this bug lies on the surface of a stone, having sprawled to the sides its middle pair of legs. At the same time the rear pair is bent under the body and is prepared to pounce. Sensitive hairs on the legs allow the insect to feel the slightest tremor on the surface of the stone produced by insects running on it. When suitable prey is close, bug catches up with it, moving by a "gallop" and keeping its front pair of legs ready. Having overtaken its prey, the predator inflicts a poisonous stab by its proboscis and drains it.
When attacked by a bird the insect opens its wings and shows its elevated upward red-colored abdomen. A running skimmer has a durable proboscis capable of piercing the skin of birds, and strong poison, causing a short-lived, but very painful sensation.
Within a year, this species provides only one generation. Hibernating larvae of a young age are begin to feed intensively after the snow melts. Due to their constitution, they are able to withstand even freezing in ice and continue normal development after several years of captivity in the ice.


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 21:27. Заголовок: fanboyphilosopher пи..


fanboyphilosopher пишет:

 цитата:
so look for a file from that within a month


Ok, and thank you for new translations!

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Пост N: 4489
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 21:32. Заголовок: fanboyphilosopher пи..


fanboyphilosopher пишет:

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larvae of a young age


Is it better to use the term "nymph" for youngs of hemimetabolous insects?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.02.15 21:50. Заголовок: good idea...


good idea.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 14.02.15 07:20. Заголовок: Aoskiar (Megacyon ao..


Aoskiar (Megacyon aoskiar)
Order: Carnivores (Carnivora)
Family: Canids (Canidae)
Habitat: deciduous forests and woodlands of North America.
By the beginning of the Neocene representatives of North American canids were represented for the most part by descendants of the common coyote (Canis latrans) of the Holocene, predators of medium and large sizes. The only exception is the Waheela, a descendant of the arctic fox, and various descendants of the grey fox (Urocyon cineroargenteus), one of the most unusual canids of the Holocene. One of its descendants, the lynx fox (Megacyon feliformis), has changed relatively little and in many respects is similar to its ancestor, only changed by its larger size. But another descendant of the gray fox, the aoskiar, is markedly different in its appearance, as well as behavior.
The aoskiar is quite a large beast: the height of an adult at the shoulder is about 90 cm, a body length of about five feet, and a tail length of about half a meter. The proportions of the animal resembles a beagle dog only the head, and especially the whiskers and ears, retains the features of a "portrait likeness" to the fox. Its eyes are greenish-yellow, its eyebrows bushy and blonde, at a sexually mature male on the neck grows a thick "beard". The hair color is usually gray, almost monochromatic, lighter on the belly. Northern populations of aoskiars differ in darker hair than southern ones; occasionally some of them are melanistic. In southern populations are occasionally found "blondes" with straw-yellow hair.
The aoskiar is a terrestrial carnivorous mammal that eats very little plant food, unlike the related lynx fox. It has a weak jaw, not adapted for chewing, but is armed with teeth with sharp cutting edges. It is an active predator that can hunt for a variety of prey. Its diet consists of small and medium-sized rodents, lagomorphs, juvenile ungulates, terrestrial birds and their chicks, frogs, small non-venomous snakes and lizards, various insects and carrion. Thanks to the light addition of a good capacity for running this animal is capable of preying on the most swift animals, driving them to exhaustion. In this regard, the competitor of the aoskiar is the lupardus, but these two species rarely compete as the aoskiar is larger and preys on larger animals. In addition, the aoskiar prefers a "mosaic" landscape with thickets of shrubs and trees, while the lupardus inhabits plains, overgrown with grassy. Aoskiars themselves are often victims of Waheelas, Berls and other predators which ravage their dens.
Aoskiars live alone or in pairs or small flocks (3 - 8 individuals) whose members are usually connected by family relationships. They hunt large prey, combining hunting from an ambush with a running hunt - one animal drives prey towards others, located in an ambush. Family life of aoskiars takes place in a den (usually a wide burrow or a hole under the roots of a tree), where adults raise pups (in brood of typically 2 - 4 puppies). Both parents attend the puppies, and sometimes helping them "nurse" are the grown up cubs of the previous litter or a subordinate female (usually the dominant sister).
Aoskiars are usually monogamous, but sometimes one male has two or three females. In this case, offspring appear only at one dominant female. The struggle for the establishment of relations of domination occurs only if the females are unrelated. Courtship at aoskiars occurs in late winter, and the offspring are born a few months later at the beginning of summer.
Aoskiars are cautious animals, when they meet with enemies they prefer not to fight, and hide in the forest or scrub. In an open confrontation they join only when there is a threat to their offspring, inflicting on the aggressor deep bites. The adaptation to rapid running largely affects the physiology of animals: due to frequent exposure to intense physical stress the life expectancy of an aoskiar is no more than 8 - 10 years.

This species of mammals was discovered by Bhut, the forum member.


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 14.02.15 07:24. Заголовок: Thank you again! ..


Thank you again!


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 16.02.15 01:26. Заголовок: Sun-shaped octopus (..


Sun-shaped octopus (Soleoctopus platyssimus)
Order: Octopuses (Octopoda)
Family: True octopuses (Octopodidae)
Habitat: tropical waters of Central America - Caribbean Sea, Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North and South America.
The "Plankton catastrophe" on the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene dealt a severe blow to marine ecosystems. In the era of restoration of biological diversity squids made a number of successful attempts to master pelagic habitats, and their relatives, octopuses and cuttlefish, have continued to evolve in the coastal waters, and among them appeared a number of bizarre forms. One species of such mollusks is the sun-shaped octopus from tropical waters of the New World.
This species is a flat crawling octopus dwelling in marine shallows. Its tentacles are nearly to the tips enclosed in a thick elastic membrane and have limited mobility. The tips of the tentacles, however, retain sufficient mobility, and with their help the mollusk can crawl along the seabed. Also in crawling participate well-developed suckers, which are located in double rows along each tentacle. The body of this mollusk is strongly flattened; its contours outline the semicircular fold of its mantle, which extends some distance behind its eyes. The eyes are movable, bulging, with a horizontally slit pupil; the iris is golden brown.
Being adapted to a creeping lifestyle, the sun-shaped octopus has practically lost the ability of reactive movement. Only occasionally a scared octopus may emit a stream of water, rising from the seabed. It is able to swim in strokes using tentacles, recalling at this point a tailless stingray or a large flatworm.
The coloring of the sun-shaped octopus is very variable: from almost white to green and cherry red. The animal has good vision, allowing it to easily simulate the color of the surrounding countryside. At rest, this species has a brown color with rows of white strokes, radiating from the body on the upper side of the tentacles. When agitated the coloring becomes sharper, and in the webbing between tentacles appear additional spots, merging with the main pattern.
The sun-shaped octopus, despite leading a fairly sedentary lifestyle, differs by aggressive behavior. Inverted or washed out from the bottom by a jet of water, the octopus tries to cling to its enemy and bite it. Its poisonous bite is excellent protection: a shark with a slow metabolism feels weak for several days, and warm-blooded animals can die from the poison in a few minutes. The venom of this mollusk, however, is a hunting weapon: the animal eats benthic invertebrates with slow metabolisms. The crushing jaws of the octopus can cause strong bites and are able to stretch from its mouth on movable ligaments when the octopus examines the reef in search of burrowing animals - crustaceans, worms and mollusks. This species eats sea stars as well, including poisonous ones.
As at all octopi, ink at the sun-shaped octopus is poisonous. But in the method of its application, this species differs from its relatives: releasing ink into the water, it does not leave its cloud, and hides, clinging to the bottom, its eyes closed and tightly locking its mantle cavity. At the same time, on the body of octopus a mucus layer is released that protects it from its own poison. If necessary the sun-shaped octopus can make up to three "shots" of ink.
The passive way of life at this species is combined with a high capacity for regeneration: the animal can easily grow back all its tentacles, if deprived of them simultaneously. If this octopus damages its eye, it is easily restored within a few weeks if even a small part of it remains.
This species grows rapidly and reaches sexual maturity at the age of two years. The male is smaller than the female, and it differs from her by elongated tentacles. In the process of "dating" the male gently draws its tentacles and strokes the female’s tentacles. Revealing himself, he floats above the circular female, and then sits down on top of her body and puts a spermatophore into her mantle cavity.
The female lays up to 1000 small eggs and harbors them on the underside of the body, having pasted them between the suction cups. Usually she selects as a shelter a narrow crack in the reef and ventilates it with her undulating body and tentacles. Incubation lasts about a month. Juveniles immediately leave their mother who does not eat after hatching offspring and dies within a month.


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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 17.02.15 02:46. Заголовок: Baobab opuntia (Adan..


Baobab opuntia (Adansopuntia obesa)
Order: Caryophyllales (Caryophyllales)
Family: Cacti (Cactaceae)
Habitat: savannas and semideserts of northern Africa.
In the age of man in the Mediterranean region were introduced cacti of the prickly pear genus (Opuntia). After the disappearance of man they survived climate change and became widespread in arid regions of the Old World, giving rise to various life forms. The largest of the descendants of prickly pears in the Old World is the baobab opuntia. It is a large tree, with appearance, size and shape similar to a baobab, but upon closer inspection it turns out to be a cactus. This species preserves and enhances the characteristic-to-cacti ability to store water in its trunk, so that it can withstand prolonged drought and grow in an environment where other woody plants die.
The trunk has a diameter of 20 m, but the height of the tree is small - also about 20 m. The wood of this species is friable, with plenty of water storing parenchyma, and an outer layer strengthened with a network of fibers. The lower part of the trunk is unbranched, the first major branches begin at a height of about 10 meters. Perennial branches are rounded in cross-section, their growth until the age of three years is similar to the typical flattened stems of prickly pears. Young branches are thorny; spines up to 5 cm, with jagged edges, are gathered in groups of 4 - 7 pieces. The trunks of young plants are also spiny, but the spines disappear with age. The bark of the trunk of the adult plant is smooth, without needles, but very dense and thick - up to half a meter at the base of the trunk. Thus the plants are protected from the rare desert herbivores who want to get primarily to the succulent wood. Damage to the bark this plant tolerates very easily, quickly restoring the lost parts of the bark. Also, the thick layer of bark serves as protection against overheating.
The baobab opuntia’s flowers are very large - about the size of a dinner plate, bright red, with many petals. They appear on biennial shoots; buds are formed in autumn and winter. The tree in bloom is an unforgettable spectacle. Pollination is generated by insects and birds, which it tempts with watery nectar. The fruits are the size of a grapefruit, with red-purple flesh, sweet and juicy. They feed monkeys, who are among the main seed distributers. In dry areas the fruits feed harelopes and poultry.
Seedlings successfully develop only in rare rainy years, when they have time to store enough water to survive the dry season. Usually the first two years of the plant’s life are critical for survival. The first time a baobab oputia blooms is at the age of about 15 years, having reached 4 meters in height. Life expectancy of more than 1000 years.

The idea about existence of this species of plants was proposed by Anton, the forum member.


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Пост N: 38
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 19.02.15 22:37. Заголовок: Spring-coiled fungus..


Spring-coiled fungus (Carnoelatera sphinga)
Order: Flesh-eating fungi (Carnomycetes)
Family: Sponge carnivorous fungi (Carnomycospongidae)
Habitat: forests of central Europe.
In the human era were known carnivorous fungi eating microscopic invertebrates. In the Neocene among sac fungi appeared new promising group – flesh-eating fungi, predatory macromycetes. Their trapping bodies (pseudosporocarps, false fruiting bodies) have different shapes depending on their methods of catching prey - usually small invertebrates. Unlike plants, the body of the fungus is represented by false tissue - scleriota representing a plexus of hyphae. Due to a lack of vessels these fungi are inaccessible to the types of traps that are used by plants, so to apprehend prey they develop other types of traps.
One group of these fungi form pseudosporocarps in the form of spirals which are able to curl during the swelling of cells, forming hyphae. This species is the spring-coiled fungus, living among mosses and lichens on trees in the forests of Central Europe. This fungus looks very peculiar: from moss thickets hang downward thin spiraling pseudosporocarps of white color up to 20 - 30 cm. In a group there are up to 40 - 50 pseudosporocarps forming a "beard", which occupies a length of about 20 cm long on the branch. Young and weak individuals of the fungus form groups of 4 - 5 pseudosporocarps.
The surface of the pseudosporocarps oozes drops of a sweetish sticky liquid that attracts small insect into the coils. When an insect is among the coils of a spiral, the pseudosporocarp responds by mechanical and chemical stimulation: At stimulation the site increases the turgor of its cells, and the spiral tightly curls without letting the victim out. One pseudosporocarp can hold up to 3 small insects. They prey is rapidly dissolved, and then the pseudosporocarp is destroyed- it turns into a long slimy thread and dies.
The fruiting body of the spring-coiled fungus is an apothecia of white color with strongly dissected edges, about 2 cm in diameter. It rises above the thicket of moss on a long stalk and sways in the wind, attracting flies that carry the spores of this species.


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Пост N: 44
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.03.15 01:38. Заголовок: the translation of &..


the translation of "Pirates of the Caribbean Sea" has been finished and sent to sivatherium@land.ru.

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Пост N: 4502
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.03.15 05:39. Заголовок: Ok, I saved it. I..


Ok, I saved it. I'll check it soon and wil prepare the new chapter file.
Thank you for work!

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Пост N: 45
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 05.03.15 21:18. Заголовок: Giant lake rabbit (B..


Giant lake rabbit (Barocuniculus capybaroides)
Order: Lagomorphs (Lagomorpha)
Family: Hares (Leporidae)
Habitat: marshlands around Lake of Carpentary.
Evolution has given to marsupial mammals one serious limitation: due to their nature of reproduction they are almost completely unable to master an aquatic lifestyle. Therefore, in the territory of Meganesia in the Neocene epoch aquatic mammals belong to two other groups. A variety of platypi feeding on small aquatic animals and rabbits, having become herbivorous animals.
The giant lake rabbit is one of aquatic species of rabbits inhabiting the coastal zone of Lake Carpentaria, preferring wetlands with dry islands and extensive thickets of marsh vegetation. This species of rabbit in the process of evolution has acquired a significant convergent similarity with the South American caviomorph rodent the capybara. This is a large herbivorous creature with broad paws and sparse rough wool. It has almost lost the ability to jump: on land this animal moves by outstretched legs, and only in the water it can push off with both feet at once. Feet of the animal have elongated fingers, which are connected by a thick swimming membrane. The height of the adult at the shoulders is up to 40 cm, the weight is about 10 kg. In spite of the adaptation to an aquatic lifestyle, this animal is able to run fast over short distances, but prefers to hide from enemies in the water.
The coloring of its wool is gray with a white belly and a white spot on the neck and shoulders, which prevents a predator to recognize the true contours of the body. The area around the nose, the end of the lower jaw and the cheeks are white. The rear part of the body is darker than the front, and under the tail is a vast area of white wool. In case of alarm the animal lifts its tail and shows this spot. At the giant lake rabbit is a large head with long whiskers and powerful incisors. The ears are very short, with a valve inside that protects the ear canal from water. The nostrils can also be closed. The eyes are large, shifted to the top of the head.
This animal swims well; while underwater, it paddles all its legs alternately, while swimming near the surface of the water. If it needs to dive, this animal paddles its hind legs at the same time, holding its front legs to its stomach. The basis of the diet are aquatic plants. Also this animal eats coastal vegetation and tree seedlings in boggy areas of forests. With the claws of its forepaws the rabbit digs up roots and tubers at the bottom of the lake and eats them on the surface of the water. In case of danger the animal dives and can stay underwater for up to 5 minutes at a depth of 5-6 meters.
It is a social species of animal, which settles in small groups of 2-5 breeding pairs on dry islands in the marshes. Each pair of adult animals digs under tree roots a burrow, to the water leads a well-trodden path among the vegetation. The depth of the hole can reach 5 meters. The pair of adults bear cubs 2 to 5 times a year. The cubs stay with their parents up to 3 months, and then leave the parent group. They lead an independent life in small groups which settle on the banks of rivers and swamps. Typically, these groups give rise to new settlements. Sexual maturity comes at the age of 4 months.
The life span of adult animals rarely exceeds 7 years. Enemies of this species are large reptiles (for example, the giant snake the eingana (Eingana archonta)) and birds of prey.

The idea about the existence of this species of mammal was proposed by Tim Morris, Adelaide, Australia.


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Пост N: 53
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.04.15 05:07. Заголовок: Sabre-toothed shrew ..


Sabre-toothed shrew (Smilosorex venator)
Order: Insectivores (Insectivora)
Family: Shrews (Soricidae)
Habitat: forests of temperate and subtropical areas of Eastern Asia, Far East.
The mass extinction at the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene freed many ecological niches. In the early Neocene within nature began a peculiar experiment: the descendants of the surviving species started making attempts to develop new forms of life. In the deciduous forests of East Asia inhabits one of the relicts of the early neocaenic radiation of insectivores – the sabre-toothed shrew, a descendant of the common shrew (Sorex araneus).
This species has become somewhat larger than most shrews, known in the human epoch: the body length is 12 - 15 cm, the tail is 6.5 - 8 cm, and the skull is 30.5 - 34 mm. At this species is expressed sexual dimorphism: the female is smaller than the male. Its ears are relatively small, the eyes are small. The muzzle ends in a mobile proboscis, swollen at the base and enclosing a large olfactory chamber - the sense of smell at this species is very well developed and is the main sense used when searching for prey. The build is dense, stocky; the tail length is about half the length of the body. Hair on the tail is very sparse.
Like its ancestors, this is a carnivorous species. Noteworthy is the specialization of its teeth: the incisors and canines have diminished and became closer to each other, and the first molars in the upper jaw have become larger than the others and stick out of the mouth. They erupt much later than the other teeth during the transition of the animal to adulthood. The base of the tooth is reinforced by bone, while the skull is shortened compared to other shrews and its front part is reduced. Molar teeth, following the sabres and seated opposite of them in the lower jaw, are enlarged and have a cutting edge with a thick layer of enamel. The jaws can open up very widely, and the bite force is large enough to be able to bite through the cervical vertebrae of an animal the size of a rabbit.
Wool of animals of this species is brown, the belly and throat are lighter. The sabre-toothed shrew is a solitary territorial species; when meeting outside of the breeding season, these shrews growl, showing their teeth and trying to exaggerate their size, pacing in front of an opponent on outstretched legs and raising up hair on its back.
This species feeds on relatively large prey: large invertebrates, mice, voles and rat cubs. In the hunt for rodents, the animals are helped by their long teeth, with them the sabre-toothed shrew also can pierce the shells of beetles. Perhaps the sabre tooth developed it as a weapon for hunting armored invertebrates. On occasion, this shrew attacks terrestrial birds, far exceeding its size, and often emerges victorious. Killed birds suffice her for a few days, until the meat is spoiled so much that she could not eat it. The sabre-toothed shrew also does not disdain carrion, and sometimes eats the remains of someone else's prey. The relatively large size of this shrew reduces its appetite, but because of its intense metabolism it eats per day as much food as it weighs.
The breeding season lasts from May to September, the females have time to raise 2 offspring. Males at this time are intolerant to each other and between them is fighting in which the teeth are never used - the opponents fight and scratch each other with their feet. Pregnancy lasts for 3 weeks; in the litter is up to 5 cubs. Cubs remain in a shelter for 15 - 20 days, and then for the same amount they walk with their mother. Brood follows the female in single file, holding on by their teeth to the base of the tail of that which is ahead, the first holding the tail of the mother. At the age of 50 days, females are already able to reproduce. Life expectancy - about 2.5 years.

This species of mammals was discovered by Nick, the forum member


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Пост N: 4525
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 21.05.15 22:23. Заголовок: Good news for Englis..


Good news for English-speaking readers: the new chapter is translated and added to the project thank to efforts of FanboyPhilosopher:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2pircarb.htm
"Prates of Caribbean Sea" - the chapter telling about the kingdom of live-bearing fishes of the Caribbean Sea and their diversity.

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Пост N: 7340
Откуда: Канада, Торонто
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.07.15 04:37. Заголовок: Для разнообразия - п..


Для разнообразия - перевод грокка из Бестиария (the translation of grokk from Bestiary):

Grokk (Quasiursus grokk)
Order: Carnivorans (Carnivora)
Family: Mustelidae (Mustelidae)
Origin: Western, Central and Southern Europe, Atlas Mountains, Asia Minor, the Caucasus peninsula.
The first millions of years of the early Neocene world resembled a little the early Palaeocene, as small animals quickly increased in size to occupy the vacant niches in emerging ecosystems. The ecological niche of bears on the Holarctic territory was taken over by the large descendants of ferrets (Mustela putoris) that form a single genus – the berl (Quasiursus). Only in the Far East they are replaced by two more predators: the arktomeles (Arctomeles tardus) and the giant tanuka (Tanuka gigantea), natives of Eastern zoogeographical area. South of the Alps, Western Europe and North Africa is inhabited by another representative of the berl genus – the grokk. It evolved in relative isolation from the rest of the species and is slightly different from them. This is a predator and a scavenger, an ecological equivalent of the Holocene bear, but more carnivorous: plant food consists not more than 10% of the diet.
The grokk is reminiscent in appearance of a cross between a ferret and a badger, but is an animal the size of a large bear, with the height in the shoulders of about 1 meter. It has an elongated body, a pretty short strong paws, large head and short tail. The fur of the grokk is of a sand-yellow hue with darker legs and a "mask" on the muzzle. The tail is also dark, but with a white tip. The grokk is a sluggish animal with plantigrade feet, but over short distances, it can run at a very high speed, catching up with its prey. This animal’s claws are long, and non-retractable.
This mammal is a carnivore, it has a strong jaw, and the root teeth have a well-developed cutting edge; the canines are elongated. Grokk’s sense of smell is very acute – the nasal cavity is quite extensive due to the animal's head being shaped more like a cat’s than a bear’s. The eyesight is comparatively weak, the eyes are small. Hearing is sharp – the external ears are dexterous and are located at the top of the head.
The grokk is a solitary predator, specializing in attack on major herbivores - the tapiroids and embolohyraxes. This species has tremendous strength, and the adult animal is capable of toppling a young embolohyrax on the ground and breaking its neck. Also, this mammal willingly eats carrion, which it finds by smell. Using its superior strength, this species easily seizes prey from other predators. In the Atlas Mountains, this mammal attacks young ostriches-giraffes. Due to this specialization in nutrition the population of the predator is widely dispersed. Each female occupies approximately 100 square kilometres of territory and lives in it practically for all of its life. In contrast, the males travel much more: they roam vast territories, partly overlapping those of different females. The territory of each of the male contains territories of several females. During the mating season the male indulges in long wanderings, fertilizing females that live in their territories. Each individual marks its territory by using secretions of musk glands, inherited from mustelid ancestors, and communication of different specimens occurs mainly through aromatic marks that these animals leave on the noticeable elements of the landscape - large stones, single trees.
The grokk is a quiet animal. Using sounds in communication occurs mostly between females and their offspring, and when two adult grooks roar loudly, trying to oust a rival from their territory. The voice of the grokk in peace is a short snarl, hence the onomatopoeic name of the animal.
The mating season begins in the fall. When ready to mate, the female produces a distinctive odor, which attracts males. After the end of estrus the female chases away the male. 2-3 Cubs are born in spring, within the first few weeks of life intense competition arises between them, there are often fights. Only one cub of the litter usually reaches independence. The sexual maturity comes at the age of 3 years; the life expectancy is up to 50 years


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Пост N: 4568
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 21.09.15 14:34. Заголовок: Using my limited ski..


Using my limited skills of translator, I prepared the English version of the chapter "Workers of decomposition":
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2decomps.htm

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Пост N: 71
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 22.09.15 03:57. Заголовок: It's very good! ..


It's very good! You're a great translator!

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Пост N: 72
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 22.09.15 04:08. Заголовок: One small point of i..


One small point of interest though: the Burglar ant (Pachycephalomyrma destructor) already has a translation in the English Bestiary, where it is called the Housebreaker ant. To maintain consistency, I recommend sticking with one of the two names (I personally like Burglar ant) and renaming it in the index.

Also, it still seems like the small picture of the "Wedgehead" in the species Index instead uses the picture of the "Stream elephant shrew".

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Пост N: 4570
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 22.09.15 16:20. Заголовок: Thank you for these ..


Thank you for these notes! Fixed now.

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Пост N: 7456
Откуда: Канада, Торонто
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.10.15 03:52. Заголовок: Перевод описания пау..


Перевод описания паука-няньки из Бестиария (просто так):

Nurse spider (Nutrix Curarachne)
Order: Spiders (Aranei)
Family: Weaver Spider (Araneidae)
Habitat: tropical forests of the Far East (Asia Mainland and nearby islands).
Among the insects, there are many social species, and some taxa are represented exclusively by social species. In contrast to insects, spiders relatively uncommonly form colonies. But when an independent transition to a social way of life occurs among spiders, a considerable variety of colony establishments is found. Social spiders appeared during the Neocene era on different con-tinents, and populated predominantly the tropical belt.
In the tropical forests of the Far East one of the original social spiders, nurse spider, is found. It is a representative of araneidae species, and forms a colony, numbering up to 500 individuals, most of whom are young and small males. This species has pronounced sexual dimorphism. The female nurse spider reaches length of 15 mm (leg span about 30 mm); it has a big round belly. The coloration of an adult female is dark brown, with white leg tips and pedipalps. A male’s length is approximately 5 mm (10 mm leg span); it has a very catchy coloration: the upper part of the abdomen is bright red with a few white spots along the midline; the rest of the body is white, with translucent legs. These males have very strong venom and in case of danger they emerge on the web and even sit astride the females, defending them from possible enemies. The bite of sev-eral males is enough to kill a small bird. Young individuals remain greenish-white in colour for a long time.
The web of this species is a large structure, with a diameter of up to 3 meters. Usually it is stretched among the branches and consists of several relatively correctly built circular nets from which individual solid web strands stretch to the neighbouring branches. Insects, caught in the nets attract the attention of young and sexually mature females, who attack it, bite it and partially drain it. Then the old females crawl onto the web, receiving a much larger proportion of the nu-trients from prey. Males and juveniles are also present on the net, but keep out of the way, in shelters. Hunting females rarely gorge themselves - usually they leave the prey, as it barely begins to feel the effect of the digestive enzymes. The stated females creep into shelters and use the movements of the legs on the net to send a special signal signifying "feeding" in response to which the juveniles and males climb on its body. The female belches out a nutritious liquid, and youngsters and males feed on it. Also, the old females spread distribute nutrients among young females, which are busy caring for the young.
In this species, despite the sharply pronounced sexual dimorphism, the female is loyal to the male and does not eat it after mating. Sometimes during the mating, the female is fed "broth", which is burped out by a "nanny", and this reduces its aggressiveness. One clutch contains up to 200 small hatchlings, many of which survive to independence. At the age of about 6 months they become sexually mature. Life expectancy is about 2-3 years.


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Пост N: 4600
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 20.10.15 22:41. Заголовок: Translated descripti..


Translated descriptions made by Bhut and FanboyPhilosopher are added to the site now! Great thanks to everybody!

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Пост N: 74
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.10.15 03:11. Заголовок: Jacana wagtail (Drom..


Jacana wagtail (Dromotacilla nupharodroma)
Order: Passerines (Passeriformes)
Family: Wagtails (Motacillidae)
Habitat: freshwater reservoirs of Europe (to Three-Rivers-Land at the east), wintering in Africa in Sahara Nile basin.
The wagtail family was given the opportunity to actively evolve when vast treeless spaces appeared on the Earth. Most species of these birds live in relatively dry areas, but some species have mastered other habitats - coastal bodies of water. These species had already existed in the human epoch, but in the Neocene the specialization of wagtails to an aquatic life has become even more pronounce. On the island of New Azora lives one of such species-the stream wagtail (Motacinclus nocazorae), capable of diving and running short distances underwater. In Europe lives other, less specialized wetland species-long toed wagtails (Dromotacilla). These are small wagtails with a long thin beak and very long toes, with the ability to walk on floating leaves of aquatic plants like water lilies and pondweed, like Jacanas. Wagtails in the human epoch were sufficiently preadapted to such a life: low weight and a semiaquatic lifestyle will direct their evolution in this direction. Long-toed wagtails are distinguished by their long toes: the length of each toe exceeds the length of the tarsus. Also their toes are equipped with long slender claws. Due to this adaptation, these birds easily move across floating leaves. In addition, long-toed wagtails are able to search for food with their head submerged, and if necessary, dive in case of danger. Overall, the appearance of these birds remains identifiable as that of a wagtail - a large head, long legs, and a long swaying tail. These birds have retained the ability to fly, and the primary flight feathers have become thick and rigid, allowing them to paddle their wings underwater. Due to the melanin content, further reinforcing the feathers, the flight feathers of all species of long-toed wagtails are black or brown. Sexual dimorphism in the coloration is not pronounced.
The Jacana wagtail is a typical species of the genus, inhabiting rivers, bays, and lakes with slow currents, heavily overgrown with water plants. The body length of adult birds is about 10 cm, the tail is up to 8 cm. The head and back are dark green, above the eyes are yellow “eyebrows” of thin feathers. The beak is almost as long as its head and slightly curved downwards. The nostrils can be closed, allowing the bird to search for food underwater on the underside of floating leaves of plants. The primary feathers are black, secondaries are bright yellow with black tips. The stomach is grayish-white; on the front of the neck is a black crescent. The tail is black. The skin on its feet is greenish-gray.
This species feeds on aquatic invertebrates: insects and their larvae, small crustaceans, and worms.
In contrast to the present Jacana, which broods developed chicks, the Jacana wagtail is altricial. It therefore is comfortable with a safe, durable socket on dry land – usually under the roots of large trees, washed out by water, or in low hollows of trees standing near the water, as well as the rotted out insides of tree trunks with soft wood. The clutch has up to 5 eggs, exclusively incubated by the female, who is fed by the male. Both birds raise the chicks jointly; during the summer each bird couple makes two broods. This species is migratory and departs for winter in North Africa, the Sahara Nile Basin.
In heavily overgrown stagnant waters of southeast Europe north of the Alps mountain ridge, the Balkans, and along the southern coast of Fourseas a close species lives: the duckweed-running wagtail (Dromotacilla lemnodroma). This bird is characterized by its smaller size – the length of an adult bird is about 6-7 cm, and the tail is equal in length. Due to its small length it is able to walk on the thickets of duckweed and other small floating plants. The color of plumage at these birds has a bright green color with black flight feathers and a poorly defined “scaly” pattern on the back and head: at contour feathers in these areas the edge is slightly darker. This is a heat-loving species and winters on the Indian subcontinent, pursuing wintering grounds along the course of long rivers.

The idea of the existence of this species was proposed by Simon, the forum member


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Пост N: 4651
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 19.02.16 09:23. Заголовок: And here is a new tr..


And here is a new translation - chapter "Giants of Siberia", in English now:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2gisiber.htm
It had taken only about 4 days of my vacations to translate it...

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Пост N: 4653
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 21.02.16 12:02. Заголовок: And the next chapter..


And the next chapter:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2lrdwtld.htm
"Lords of wetlands" - the wildlife of Western Siberian wetlands.

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Пост N: 7873
Откуда: Канада, Торонто
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 18.06.16 00:47. Заголовок: Для разнообразия - п..


Для разнообразия - перевод одного из крабов Бестиария:

Widest Disparocarcinus (Disparocarcinus latissimus)
OrderSquad: Decapods (Decapoda)
Family: Majids (Majidae)
Habitat: the Pacific Ocean, the ocean floor at depths of up to 3 km.

Among the effects of the planktonic ”catastrophe" at the dawn of the Holocene and the Neo-cene was the almost complete extinction of the deep-sea fauna, which depended upon the productive upper layers of water. So, in early Neocene, an active settlement of deep-water layers of the oceans by the descendants of coastal and shallow-water animals had begun. New, often bizarre survival strategies appeared among the settlers. One of them is shown by a species of deep-water crab the widest Disparocarcinus, which lives at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. This is a slow ground dweller, found exclusively at great depths and possessing a distinctive appearance.
The species epithet of this animal reflects the shape of its body: the carapace of the animal is flat and wide, with an oval shape, and a length of up to 20 cm. It stretches into a powerful thorn that is used to defend the crab, and on the front of the body, it has several pairs of spines. The surface of the carapace is covered with short bristles. The eyes of this animal are missing completely, not even eye pedicels remain. The walking legs are of a moderate length, and they have a different form: they are flat. A wide carapace and the flattened legs of this animal impede it getting stuck in the sea floor - this crab dwells in a very silty terrain. In addition, all of its walk-ing legs have "brushes" of elastic chitin hairs flanking, with a fine velvet, the leg tips. It also prevents the immersion of the animal into silt. The body colour is grayish-white; the claws, legs and spines along the edge of the carapace are slightly darker due to the thicker and chitinezed cuticle.
The claws are short and thin, covered with numerous bristles on the edge: the widest Disparocarcinus eats exclusively silt, raking it with its claws and digesting the organic material contained in it.
These traits are characteristic only for the females of this species. The relations between the sexes of this crab are similar to those that have been among the representatives of several families of deep-sea anglerfish from the human era. The male of that species has absolutely no resemblance to the female: it is very small (no longer than 10-12 mm), and is reminiscent of the decapod crustaceans only in its younger age, hence the generic name, meaning the "Gypsy crab". The gender of this species is not genetically fixed and is defined by ontogeny of each individual. If the larva during a certain time leads an independent life, it grows and turns into a free-living female. If it lands on a female's body, the larva molts several times and becomes a parasitic dwarf male. The male lives under the abdomen of a female; it pierce the surface of the female’s body and eats by the female’s account. With each molt, the male loses the typical traits of a decapod crustacean: the body becomes bag-like, there is only a rudimentary segmentation, the limbs and senses degenerate, only the gonads remain well developed. As such, the male can easily be mistaken for a representative of a species of a parasitic crustacean. During their joint lives, the male and female crabs of this species can synchronize the biological rhythms: together they molt and are involved in reproduction. Sometimes the female may have 2-3 parasitic males at once.
This species feeds on silt, its claws rake the mud and the crab swallows the top lay-er. Together with mud, this crab eats small animals that are unable to escape it.
During its molt, a female with a soft shell sits motionless for some time on its discarded skin like on "rescue raft", thereby avoiding dipping into viscous silt. Over the next 2 weeks, where its new armour hardens at last, it eats the remnants of its old shell and continues a normal life.
The clutch of this species has up to 300 eggs. The first larval stages pass in the egg, the eggs hatch in-to bentos-dwelling megalopa larva, which feeds on bacteria by eating the top layer of silt. It becomes an adult female in 3-4 years. To become a parasitic male takes considerably less time: in this case, the sexual occurs in the second year of life.
Life expectancy is 40 years in this species.



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Пост N: 7874
Откуда: Канада, Торонто
Рейтинг: 13
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 18.06.16 01:46. Заголовок: И пиявка: Nosferatu..


И пиявка:

Nosferatu Worm (Serpentobdella gigantissima)
Order: Trunkless leeches (Arhynchobdellida)
Family: Jawed leeches (Gnathobdellidae)
Habitat: Meganesia, Lake Carpentaria.
In the northern part of the Neocene Meganezia is a warm and humid Equatorial climate. This contributes to the emergence, in the mainland fauna, of large species of invertebrates that use these rich sources of food provided by nature. The Carpentaria Lake is one of two major lakes in the North Meganezia. There are a variety of large fish (even freshwater green shark (Carcharhinus viridis)), as well as èjngana (Eingana archonta) – a giant semiaquatic snake, the supreme predator in the lake. The abundance of large animals with thick skin gave rise to the evolution of a kind of parasite – a bloodsucker able to bite through their skin. This creature is the Nosferatu worm, a large leech from coastal areas of the Lake.
The Nosferatu Worm is related to large species of leeches, but this species is far away from the terrestrial Giants, which are found in the forests of Southeast Asia. The body length of the leech alone is up to 20 cm, but it can stretch up to half a meter. The body flattened, ribbon-like, with strong suction cups at the front and rear ends. The coloration of the upper side of is light grey with dark spots along the midline of the body. The underside is painted in a bluish-white color. Along the front edge of the head three pairs of eyes are positioned, each one - the size of a grain of black pepper. The eyesight of a Nosferatu worm is good – the leech is able to no-tice even small prey.
The mouth is located in the circle of three sharp triangular jaws. Using these jaws, the leech easily bites through the thick and solid skin of snakes and sharks. Thanks to its strong oral sucker, the leech clings to the animal host. To get rid of it, an èjngana will climb ashore or form body rings and rub them against each other. The Nosferatu worm more rarely attacks the sharks, but it is more difficult for them to get rid of this parasite. The at-tacked shark rubs on floating tree trunks or on the skin of the other sharks. A hungry leech drinks up to 200 ml of blood per feeding, and the wound, made by its jaws, bleeds for a long time. The prey of the Nosferatu Worm is not limited to large animals. In the absence of large animals nearby, the Nosferatu worm attacks ducks and other water birds. This attack of the leech usually ends with the death of the birds: the Nosferatu worm encircles the bird and deprives it of the ability to move, and by feeding, the leech produces a severely haemorrhaging effect. Occasionally the Nosferatu worm hunts for ducklings and frogs, swallowing them whole. Sometimes the prey of this leech are turtle hatch-lings; after digesting prey, the leech just throws up their shells.
The Nosferatu worm propagates in rivers, because the eggs of this species cannot grow in water of the lake, which has a small residual salinity. This species is hermaphroditic. This animal lays mucous cocoons containing up to 50-80 large eggs on leaves of aquatic plants. A cocoon is able to endure being out of water for several days. When the mucus dries up, a crust protects the developing fetus from destruction. The incubation lasts up to 3 months. A young leech with a length of approximately 20 mm feeds on the blood of small fish and often attacks their gills. With age, it goes on larger prey.
The sexual maturity comes at the age of 3 years; the life expectancy is up to 15 years.



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Пост N: 4797
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 28.08.16 09:53. Заголовок: The chapter "Kin..


The chapter "King of the castle" based upon ideas by Timothy Morris is translated now:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2kingcas.htm

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Пост N: 6883
Откуда: Россия, Москва
Рейтинг: 10
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 28.08.16 11:15. Заголовок: :sm36: ..




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Пост N: 8021
Откуда: Канада, Торонто
Рейтинг: 13
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 15.09.16 20:18. Заголовок: Новый перевод - боль..


Новый перевод - большой урмы:

Great Urma (Urma magna)
Squad: Rodents (Rodentia)
Family: Squirrel (Sciuridae)
Habitat: Northern Europe, coniferous forests.
The dominant group among the Neocene mammals are the rodents. After the end of the Neocene they quickly regained their numbers and variety, characteristic for the Holocene era. In the course of evolution, among them appeared species, which mastered new ecological niches and food sources. One of these rodents is the great urma, a large representative of the family of squirrels that inhabits the conifer forests of the North Europe. This animal’s name comes from the ancient name of squirrels in northern Russia.
The great urma has kept the recognizable appearance of its ancestor: actually, this is a very large squirrel. An adult reaches 8 kg in weight, in body length – up to 50 cm, not counting the tail. The length of the fluffy tail is approximately 1 m. It is a slow-moving arboreal animal, its manner of movement is as in case of some prosimians – the great urma very rarely commits to long distance jumping, preferring to travel along the branches by stepping slowly. When moving, it does not cling to bark and twigs with claws, but grasps with its fingers. The fingers of this squirrel’s front limbs are divided into two groups: (I) + (II) are capable of being partially opposable to fingers III + IV + V. This allows this squirrel to grasp twigs and cling to them. Its hind legs also grasp, the thumb there opposes the rest. The background color of the summer fur of the great urma is brown, the hair on the chest and the lower jaw is white, on forehead and nape is black. The last third of the tail is also white. The winter fur’s color changes from brown to ashy-grey, but the white and black markings are preserved.
The large size and slowness of the great urma is related to the particularities of its diet: this rodent is an analogue of the koalas in boreal forests, because it feeds on available and hard to digest food - pine needles and young shoots. This rodent has a wide and a robust muzzle, with large jaw muscles and strong jaws, so that is can easily bite off the needles and young shoots, and chew them with the molars that have enamel folds, which continue to grow throughout the great urma’s life, as do the incisors, but slower. The stomach of the great urma is relatively large with twin chambers – this helps the food to undergo preliminary processing. This animal has long intestines with a well-developed blind gut. The urma spends a lot of time sitting on thick branches, dangling its tail down and digesting food. For this species, the coprophagy is typical – the dung in the cecum gets ‘recycled’ and maximum nutrients are extracted from it. The final litter the great urma is dry with a strong resinous smell. Due to the specific diet, this animal’s meat also has a pronounced resinous smell.
Additional food sources are birds ' eggs, chicks and small rodents, as well as insect larvae that live in rotting wood. These squirrels often descend to the ground in search of invertebrates. On the ground, the great urmas keep their tails raised upwards, but with lowered tip. In case of danger, the great urmas raise their tails up and make a squawking sound, similar to crying. In the event of an attack by a large predator, the great urma does not flee, and proceeds to actively defend itself, causing deep wounds with its’ incisors. The white and black spots on the face of animal constitute a warning color. Usually, the great urma lives in families that has two adults and their offspring, and defense from the entire family can cause even a large predator to flee. The couple, in this species, remains for several years.
The nest of this species is a large globular structure, which is arranged on the top of a large tree with a broken tip. The diameter of the nest can reach two m. A couple of great urmas uses the nest for several years, regularly changing the lining and renewing it at the time of the birth of offspring. Once a year, in late spring, the female gives birth to 3-4 blind and helpless pups, covered with velvety red hair. With the growth of the wool and vanishes by the fall in young animals appear patches of white and Black wool characteristic of adults. The young animals spend the first winter with their parents and the youngsters leave in early spring, when the male begins to show aggression towards them. Sexual maturity occurs in the second year of life, and the life expectancy of about 10 years.
Beyond the Urals, the great urma is replaced by a close relative – the giant urma (Urma gigas), adapted to life in the context of continental climate with harsh winters. It is a large ground squirrel (the adult weights about 12 kg), which inhabits the northern border of coniferous forests and mountain ranges in Siberia, preferring the pine stlanik. Obviously, the extensive arrays of larch forests become an obstacle to the colonization of this hardy species westward, into Beringia and North America, depriving it of the necessary winter fodder. This species feeds on pine needles and builds large domed nests on the ground. During winter, the fur of the giant urma is thick and white without black spots. The summer fur is grey with white spots on the chest and with black cheeks. These animals also actively protect themselves from predators by issuing ear-piercing squeals and holding their short tail vertically. The brood of this species consists of 2-3 large pups that grow quickly and spend the first winter in the family nest.


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Пост N: 4807
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 15.09.16 20:53. Заголовок: Maybe, "great..


Maybe, "great" or "greater" urma?

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Пост N: 8022
Откуда: Канада, Торонто
Рейтинг: 13
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 15.09.16 22:05. Заголовок: Okay, great...


Okay, great.

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Пост N: 4823
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 09.10.16 11:08. Заголовок: New chapter of the p..


New chapter of the project is translated: "Fishes, frogs and penguins" - about the fauna of New Zealand of Neocene epoch.
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2fshfrpg.htm

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Пост N: 4928
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 14.01.17 18:31. Заголовок: And one more chapter..


And one more chapter is translated:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2decflow.htm
"Deceitful flowers" - about relationships between plants, animals and fungi in rainforest canopy of Southeastern Asia.

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Пост N: 4942
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.02.17 22:36. Заголовок: The next chapter tra..


The next chapter translated:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2worlend.htm
"Life at the world's end" - about the inhabitants of Antarctic meadows.

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Пост N: 85
Рейтинг: 0
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 11.02.17 20:41. Заголовок: Wabun (Crocorax wabu..


Wabun (Crocorax wabun)
Order: Pelicaniforms (Pelicaniformes)
Family: Cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae)
Habitat: freshwater reservoirs of North America in areas of subtropical climate.
The border of two eras, the Holocene and Neocene, was marked by a mass extinction, related to very harsh climate change. Extensive glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere forced inhabitants of the temperate latitudes to move further south, together with changes to the boundaries of climate zones. Later, when the glaciers retreated again, many species returned to their ancestral lands, yet some simply adapted to the changing conditions in new habitats. Thus in low latitudes appeared representatives of groups of animals and plants, more typical of polar regions. The Wabun is one of such species.
The Wabun is one descendant of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) of the Holocene epoch. Even in the era of man this bird had a considerable capacity to adapt and was represented by various subspecies; in the Neocene from this species came a few new species, differing in ecology. One species is the Wabun, inhabiting the rivers and lakes of North America.
The Wabun is a waterbird about half a meter long. Its coloring, like the ancestral species, is dark (males are darker than females), but not monotonous, and with distinct longitudinal striation on the neck and chest. This helps the bird hide in coastal thickets. The characteristic feather “ears” of the ancestral species evolved into two narrow feather braids; facial skin is bare, flesh-red colored. The wings are small, but the bird retains the ability to fly; the Wabun cannot fly for a long time, but for short distances it can fly fast enough to escape from underwater or terrestrial predators. If necessary, the bird can jump out of the water into the air, despite its wet feathers. From aerial enemies the Wabun escapes under the water: it is as good a diver as its ancestor. On the ground, this bird keeps very cautious: due to long fingers with palmas the Wabun walks very clumsily, although it is able to take off from the ground.
The Wabun has relatively few enemies, mostly carnivorous fish and snakes; the meat of this bird is quite unpleasant in taste, so most predatory birds and beasts do not hunt it, but ravage its nest in search of eggs and chicks. The Wabun itself preys on small near-surface fish, insects and other invertebrates, as well as amphibians. The bird attacks bottom-dwelling fish and crayfish less, preferring to hunt in open water.
Wabuns are gregarious birds, forming small loose colonies. Each pair arranges a nest alone, but rather closely spaced, and while hunting they do not show aggression towards neighbors. In addition, they are protected from enemies collectively, raising a general alarm and supporting each other with loud shouts.
This is a sedentary bird species, dwelling where there are large bodies of water (especially rivers) which do not usually freeze in the winter, or freeze incompletely for a brief time. In the winter, these birds search in wintering holes for fish, plunging as deep as 20 meters.
Nesting starts in the spring. Yet even in late winter males of this species begin to care for females, hunting together and feeding the female fish. A caretaker male performs underwater somersaults and frequently darts into the air, in a “candle” pose, and then falls into the water. During these courtship games, females evaluate the condition of the males before returning their affection. This species is monogamous, and partners often remain together for life.
The nests of Wabuns are a little similar in arrangement to the nests of the great crested grebe in the human era. A pair of these birds throw into thickets of water plants heaps of twigs, until they form a floating island, at which a nest is arranged. Their clutch is no larger than 6 eggs, they are incubated in shifts by both parents. Usually young birds spend the winter with their parents, but in the spring the family breaks up, and the breeding pair refurbishes the nest and makes a new clutch. Sexual maturity comes at the 2nd year of life.
The life expectancy of the Wabun is 10-15 years.

This species of bird was discovered by Bhut, the forum member


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Пост N: 4948
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 21.02.17 22:06. Заголовок: New chapter of Neoce..


New chapter of Neocene project is translated:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2delidrg.htm
"Delicate dragons of Antarctica" - about insects and some other inhabitants of the continent.

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Пост N: 4962
Откуда: Россия, Владимир
Рейтинг: 21
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 12.04.17 21:48. Заголовок: And one more chapter..


And one more chapter of Neocene project is translated:
http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2wrlnnex.htm
"World at the edge of non-existance" - about fishes and invertebrates of abyssal zone of Pacific Ocean.

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Пост N: 2606
Откуда: Сибирия, Алтайская низменность
Рейтинг: 4
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.07.19 21:04. Заголовок: Эта тема умерла?..


Эта тема умерла?

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Пост N: 1439
Рейтинг: 4
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 02.07.19 21:06. Заголовок: Дохлозавр пишет: Эт..


Дохлозавр пишет:

 цитата:
Эта тема умерла?


А ты можешь заниматься переводами на английский?
Или с какой целью ты спрашиваешь?

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Пост N: 12326
Рейтинг: 0
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.09.19 12:55. Заголовок: Можно составить спис..


Можно составить список проектов с Голубой Химеры,которые хотелось бы,чтобы перевели?

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Пост N: 1076
Рейтинг: -5

Замечания: Создание клоновТребование внимания от других
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 28.09.19 19:07. Заголовок: Можно, кройте....


Можно, кройте..

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Пост N: 12381
Рейтинг: 0
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 28.09.19 20:33. Заголовок: «Живой мир «Звёздных..


«Живой мир «Звёздных войн»: полевой путеводитель»
«Завтра: животные будущего»
Metazoica
Squamozoic
XenoPermian
Пирунгата
Драконы мира,Неа,Сильван,Динозавроиды Саймона Роя,Красная Земля(полностью)
Проект Сатоши Кавасаки об истории Земли
Аллоцен
Далёкий мир будущего
Ксеноцен
Полицен
Амфитерра
Городское будущее
Мир Эродеса
Тератопия - отвратительная земля
«Криптозоологикон» - 1
«Криптозоологикон» - 2
Тёмный зверинец - путешествие в альтернативную Африку
Миллионы лет после человека
Панталасса Нова
Международный реестр воздушных обитателей
Возможное вчера
Наше возможное вчера
Демоны глубин
Дикий мир будущего
Носоходки - затерянные острова
Нереус
Фураха
Саган 4
Илион
Миры Роберта Ибатуллина
Ската
Хриира
Бета Колибри
Фентил
Эпона
Экзобиотика
Экзобиология 101
Миры Мика МакДи
Ану
Эпиметей
Нерривик
Один
Река Мораэ
Красная долина
Шиатерия
Серина
Наследие Земли
Кембрийский Марс
Воображаемая орнитология
Пережившие шестое вымирание

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Пост N: 12400
Рейтинг: 0
ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 28.09.19 23:44. Заголовок: Тааааак....Попробую ..


Тааааак....Попробую с помощью гугло-переводчика перевести картинки с Неа,заменяя ахинею на нормальное.
https://www.deviantart.com/sanrou/art/Nea-contest-Cerrado-version-579180388
Гривистый волк
Большие всеядные псовые, обитающие в Серрадо (бразильская саванна).
Почему ?: Разнообразная диета (мясо и овощи); жители пастбищ; помогает с прорастанием растений через дефекацию семян.
На Неа: принята более травоядная диета; Более длинная шея, чтобы высматривать хищников; Большие уши для слуха и охлаждения; когти передних лап для копания корней.
Chaunus veredas
Какие они? Лягушки, живущие в Серрадо.
Почему ?: Крепкие животные, они могут противостоять засушливым сезонам, прячась на земле и уходя при необходимости; Разнообразный рацион; Лягушки обычно хорошо выживают.
На Неа: занимают экологическую нишу аллигаторов; Больше связаны с водой; Хвост; Питаются крупными насекомыми (они существуют на Неа, верно ...?)
https://www.deviantart.com/leggurm/art/Nea-Contest-Garish-Flamingo-579205307
На Неа есть несколько крупных щелочных озер, каждое из которых заполнено экстремофильной флорой и фауной. Малые фламинго были введены в эти озера, где они питаются водорослями. С момента их появления фламинго изменили цвет от розовато-белого до полностью розового, что дало им общее название яркий фламинго, благодаря совершенно уникальной форме гиперпигментации, называемой «розаизм». Без конкуренции и небольшого хищничества, фламинго также выросли в размерах, достигнув в настоящее время 120-160 см в высоту. Из-за тонкой атмосферы Неа и более низкого уровня кислорода, яркие фламинго только летают, чтобы достигнуть новых озер, чтобы питаться и размножаться, если их старое озеро станет негостеприимным. Как и их земные предки, они откладывают одно яйцо на гнезде в форме кургана, сделанном из грязи в озере. Есть два подвида; Курнугийский фламинго из щелочных озер вокруг Курнугианского моря и солёноозерские Фламинго из щелочных озер в нескольких неанскихсоляных озерах .
https://www.deviantart.com/leggurm/art/Nea-Contest-Elephant-Tortoise-579415008
Слоновая черепаха, выведенная из Галапагосской черепахи и названная за свой размер, является самым крупным наземным животным на Неа, достигающим до 2 м в высоту. У них есть складка на шее, чтобы помочь с рассеиванием тепла. Стада этих существ медленно идут по засушливым и полузасушливым окрестностям Неа, подобно живым валунам, просматривая почки, плоды и цветы кактусов, а также листья и плоды выносливых деревьев. Эти стада не имеют социальных связей, соединяемых исключительно едой, водой, тенью или спариванием. Зрелые самцы сражаются за готовых к размножению самок, вытягивая шею, разинув рот. Они могут иногда кусать друг друга, но слабый самец обычно отступает. Спаривание - неловкое дело, и оно завершается с некоторыми трудностями. Самки вырывают в земле глубокий ров, в который они откладывают до 16 яиц через длинный яйцеклад. Это невероятно долгоживущие животные, а особь по имени Старый Ганс, которая умерла 15 лет назад, считается одной из первых черепах-слонов, представленных Неа.
https://www.deviantart.com/leggurm/art/Nea-Contest-Parasol-Squirrel-579597707
Выведенная из ДНК земляной белки, зонтичная белка живет почти так же. Он живет в группах по 11 или 12 особей во главе двумя или тремя доминирующими самками. Они проводят день, добывая листья, клубни и насекомых. Они немного больше своих предков, около 45 см в длину, их конечности немного длиннее, поэтому они могут легче преодолевать дальнейшие расстояния, а их хвост длиннее и шире, чтобы лучше себя затенить. Нижняя сторона их хвоста белая, чтобы отражать солнечный свет. Они также будут использовать свои хвосты, чтобы защитить себя от пыли и холода.
https://www.deviantart.com/leggurm/art/Nea-Contest-Thorny-Moloch-579591560
Подчеркивая образ Неа как «самого милого места в аду», Колючий Молох, произошедший от Колючего Дьявола, действительно выглядит очень адски. С момента своего появления Колючий Молох стал больше своего земного предка и теперь достигает 30 сантиметров в длину. Шипы на его ложной голове также длиннее, что придает ему еще более дьявольский вид, чем у его предка. Он бродит в своей необычной походке по пустыням и засушливым условиям, хватая беспозвоночных, поскольку его диета вышла за пределы исключительно муравьев. Чтобы легче пить, он поднимает свой хвост и заднюю часть, опуская голову и переднюю часть, гравитация теперь выталкивает воду через колючки, покрывающие тело Колючего Молоха, быстрее, чем это было бы иначе.
https://www.deviantart.com/leggurm/art/Nea-Contest-Sand-Sea-Lions-579820526
851/5000
Из многих видов муравьиных львов на Неа одно семейство, адаптированное к Песчаным морям, метко названо Муравьиные Морские Львы. Личинки Муравьиных Морских Львов отказались от ям-ловушек своих предков в пользу активной охоты на свою добычу, которая состоит из любого животного, достаточно маленького, чтобы схватить его, чувствуя вибрации, вызванные их плаванием в песке через волоски по всему телу. Муравьиные морские львы слепы и полностью полагаются на эти волоски, чтобы обнаружить добычу и хищников. Личинки разных видов имеют длину от 1 до 4 см. Они окукливаются в коконах, сотканных из шелка и песчинок. Примерно через месяц взрослое насекомое появляется и живет на поверхности. Взрослые песчаные морские львы являются одними из немногих видов в песчаных морях, которые живут на поверхности. Они питаются во многом теми же вещами, что и их соответствующие личиночнки, и такого же размера.
https://www.deviantart.com/velociraptor1801/art/Archeaquis-Chelodraco-579205834
Вот Archeaquis Chelodraco, измененная форма каймановой черепахи без панциря. Более крупные виды, достигающие полутора метров в длину, обитают в глубоких озерах планеты, в то время как меньший подвид имеет тенденцию жить в скалистых ручьях и реках. Животные потеряли панцирь как генетическую аномалию, но вместо того, чтобы вымереть, они приспособились. Теперь, с их длинными шеями, они - прекрасные засадные хищники. Ониживут на одном камне почти всю свою жизнь, и, поскольку они почти не двигаются, растительность начинает покрывает их, создавая впечатление, что они просто часть своего камня, но когда что-то приближается, клац, шея вытягивается, и животное съедает жертву.
https://www.deviantart.com/velociraptor1801/art/MORE-579664107
В любом случае, у нас есть некоторые животные, которые являются исключительными для тундровых районов Неа, Снежная Цапля и Снежный кабан. Снежная цапля - это красивая черно-белая птица, которая бродит по траве и мелководью в северной и южной тундре в поисках мелких млекопитающих или рыб. В основном одиночные, эти птицы собираются вместе в начале года, чтобы добывать пищу вместе, в то время как животные процветают в потепляющей тундре.
https://www.deviantart.com/velociraptor1801/art/MORE-579664107
Снежные кабаны, со смешанной светло-коричневой, темно-коричневой и серой шкурой, путешествуют небольшими стадами по маленькой тундре, питаясь травами и небольшими кустарниками или даже мелкими животными. Ранней весной ((Неа имеет весну ... верно?)) самцы сражаются друг с другом своими клыками в надежде привлечь самку. Они могут казаться ... толстыми ... Они действительно в основном пушистые.
https://www.deviantart.com/velociraptor1801/art/Why-not-one-more-D-579678729
Встречайте Флофа. Флоф - одна из самых больших птиц в Неа, в основном потому, что она наземная, собирает мелких животных или ест траву, пока она растет. Живая вода Лира(не смог перевести) в горных и равнинных регионах, этому животному действительно не нужно маскироваться, поэтому он просто тускло-коричневого или иногда серовато-коричневого цвета. Они формируют небольшие семейные группы, в основном по 7 или 8 птиц, но один раз в сезон они собираются в одну большую группу для спаривания и идут в разные места, чтобы отложить яйца.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Inland-Gull-579278073
Наземная чайка естественным образом произошла от Серебряной чайки (C. n. Novaehollandiae) и распространилась, чтобы стать более наземной. Поскольку он стал менее зависимым от воды, его основным источником пищи являются любые мелкие животные. Они также живут небольшими группами, а не большими стаями, и их ноги лишь наполовину перепончатые, поскольку они проводят все меньше и меньше времени у воды.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Forest-Chickensaur-579404609
В Лесном Курозавре не так много отличий, это в основном курица с зубами, когтями и хвостом. У него действительно более хищный образ жизни, чем у большинства кур, но это все.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Desert-Raven-579421670
Пустынный ворон - самый большой ворон на Неа, его поведение не слишком отличается от австралийского ворона (Corvus coronoides coronoides). Основным отличием является внешний вид, в том числе белые отметины на голове, боках, ногах, крыльях и хвосте. его крылья и хвост также крупнее земных воронов, используемых для парения над пустыней.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Rock-Raven-579433394
Каменный ворон (также известный как Пестрый ворон или Хохлатый ворон) - самый маленький подвид неанского ворона. Он живет в горах, питаясь в основном насекомыми и иногда ящерицами. Он живет в небольших семейных группах, которые образуют большую слабо связанную стаю. Есть около 7 основных стад, с 20-40 меньшими стадами, найденными по всему Неа.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Black-headed-Eagle-579287647
Черноголовый орел (также известный как шпроцевый орел) произошел из тасманского клинохвостого орла чтобы сохранить подвид, и это оказалось огромным успехом. Популяция на Земле, была небольшой, поэтому генетические модификации увеличивали генетическое разнообразие, и теперь у взрослых самцов есть большие когти на крыльях, используемых в бою за доминирование. Он также меньше, чем A. a. Fleayi, а также ведет более хищный образ жизни, а не собирает падаль. Они обычно гнездятся в высокогорных деревьях, таких как сосна неанская.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Yellow-Kangaroo-580130470
Желтый кенгуру - неанский потомок красного кенгуру (Macropus rufus). У него широкий ареал, но он действительно не слишком особенный.
https://www.deviantart.com/plastospleen/art/Spik-Moss-579452811
Спик Мосс был одним из первых крупных растений, доставленных в Неа, и он быстро заселил более прохладные южные и северные части планеты. Первоначально он был всего 50 - 75 см в высоту, но с годами он вырос до 2 и больше м в высоту. Они не растут так часто, как его предок, обыкновенный водяной мох (P. c. Commune), обычно в два или три.

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https://www.deviantart.com/dontknowwhattodraw94/art/Nea-Humboldt-Viscacha-579376904
Одним из первых мелких млекопитающих, попавших в Неа, была северная вискача, маленький грызун из Южной Америки, входящий в состав шиншилл.
Теперь, несколько веков спустя, эти животные превратились в новый подвид: Гумбольдтова вискача.
У Гумбольдтовой Вискачи такой же образ жизни в колонии и размер, как у земных предков (около 30-40 сантиметров), но у него большие, заостренные уши и другой окрас. Длинный хвост все еще может быть свернут, но он также полезен в общении: во время кормления всегда есть особи, которые следят за опасностью. Делая это, они встают на более высоком, хорошо видимом месте и качают хвостом вверх и вниз, заставляя белую нижнюю часть его вспыхивать «включением и выключением».
Если обнаруживается хищник или замечено что-то подозрительное, охранники держат хвост вверх, оставляя белых видимыми. Другие члены колонии заметят это и сделают то же самое, распространяя тревогу. Если хищник атакует или опасность приближается, охранники будут шуметь, заставляя своих сородичей бежать в безопасное место.
На этом этапе хвост имеет другую цель: белый цвет - это сигнал для молодых особей и других членов семьи, чтобы они следовали, чтобы никто не оставался позади или не бежал в неправильном направлении.
Гумбольдтовы Вискачи были завезены в Неа в двух местах: во-первых, это горы к востоку от моря Кургуниана, во-вторых, горы, немного южнее экватора. Вискачи, изображенные здесь, принадлежат к первой популяции, другая популяция выглядит так же, с той лишь разницей, что черные узоры на их мехе менее выражены.
Население рядом с Курнугийским морем с течением времени расширилось на север, и теперь его можно найти вплоть до более низких районов северных лесов и лугов. Похоже, что в будущем они, вероятно, распространятся в эти более умеренные условия и могут превратиться в другой подвид. Считается, что другая популяция эволюционирует в другой подвид, поскольку они не вступают в контакт с Курнугийской.
https://www.deviantart.com/dontknowwhattodraw94/art/Nea-Sandrunner-579770590
Песчаные бегуны - это генноинженерные египетские гигантские фаланги (Galeodes arabs), которые процветают в одном из песчаных морей Неа. Они выпущены только в одной пустыне, так как у других уже есть свои собственные виды сольпуг.
Их ноги покрыты волосками, чтобы обнаружить вибрации в песке от добычи, хищников или потенциальной опасности. В отличие от песчаных гуппи или самородков(не смог понять,кто это), они не могут плавать в песке, но бегают по нему. Как только добыча обнаружена, они бегут к ней и начинают копать своими длинными ножками, пока первая пара ног захватывает жертву. Хотя они являются кошмаром для маленьких рептилий и насекомых, они должны знать о более крупных хищниках, таких как песчаные акулы, карманные зерды(тоже не смог понять) и тому подобное.
Стоит отметить, что волоски на их ногах могут задерживать воду из воздуха, который затем слызивается с ног хелицерами, чтобы их можно было принимать через рот. Иногда, если вы прогуливаетесь по пустыне утром, вам может посчастливиться обнаружить песочного бегуна, который держит свои длинные ножки в воздухе, терпеливо ожидая, пока не конденсируются капли воды.
https://www.deviantart.com/dontknowwhattodraw94/art/Nea-Blue-mountain-pillow-579766601
Одним из более поздних видов растений, интродуцированных на Неа, была ярета (Azorella compacta) с лугов Пуна(хелп,хелп!) в Южной Америке.
Они еще не получили широкого распространения, и поскольку они не были генетически модифицированы в лаборатории, ученые посадили их в горах северных лесов и лугов, недалеко от одного из морей, чтобы быть уверенными, что они выживут. Из-за этого только в этом регионе вы можете найти их, но они преуспевают и спускаются по горным склонам: каждый год новые побеги можно найти все ниже и ниже.
На Земле ярета использовалась в качестве топлива, угрожая населению. Здесь, на Неа, растение не должно бояться такой участи и может продолжать расти, чтобы увеличить биоразнообразие планеты.
Как и их земные предки, голубая горная подушка растет на больших высотах, когда температура довольно низкая, поэтому, как и на Земле, крошечные растения растут в плотных скоплениях, чтобы удерживать тепло и защищать себя от сильных ветров, создавая типичные зеленые сгустки. Их цветы синие, в отличие от фиолетовых на Земле, и когда они полностью распускаются, покрывают целые сгустки, что объясняет название растения.
https://www.deviantart.com/8bitaviation/art/Neanean-Caecilians-579396867
Иллюстрация относится к излучению свободно плавающих, безлегких, водных червяг, происходящих из бразильской червяги Айзельта, которые первоначально были заселены в южном полушарии Неа как пресноводные обитатели рек. В то время как их предки кормили и заселяли иловые и глинистые отложения на дне реки, некоторые из них, зерновые рыбы, жили в толще воды как поедатели водных насекомых и быстро изменились. Однако из-за их производных ночных привычек, эта разнообразная группа только недавно была изучена неанскими учеными, и большинство из них не было названо отдельно от «Atretochoana sp.». Резвая зерновая рыба (сверху), так называемая за то, как она защищается, когда ее ловят в рыболовной сети, обитает в озерах южного полушария Неа, мигрировав туда из среды обитания своих предков. Это универсал, питающийся водными растениями, водорослями и насекомыми. Необычная среди зерновых рыб, резвая зерновая рыба является круглосуточно активной и, таким образом, была первой, обнаруженной в группе; в течение многих лет это считалось уникальным. Как и у других обитающих в озере зерновых рыб, у неё большой уплощенный хвост и сжатое с боков тело, которое он использует для продвижения через воду. В правом верхнем углу виден силуэт взрослого, не в масштабе основного рисунка.
https://www.deviantart.com/thedilophoraptor/art/Neanean-Saltgator-579396579
Обитая на северном побережье Курнугийского моря, массивный аллигатор является одним из самых крупных местных хищников, хотя до сих пор неясно, почему он может достигнуть таких размеров, некоторые теории включают двойное дыхание, которое у них общее с птицами, что позволяет им иметь более эффективное дыхание и, возможно, может иметь их способность быть почти полностью неактивными в течение многих дней. Эти Аллигаторы часто известны как неанские солегаторы из-за их среды обитания, но также простые люди называют их Курнугийские аллигаторы или Гигантские Аллигаторы. Хотя смертельные случаи от этих крупных аллигаторов не так уж и редки, их легко предотвратить, поскольку рептилий нетрудно обнаружить, и от них можно легко спастись на суше.
Большую часть времени Солегаторы греются на солнце утром и в сумерках и прячутся в норах палящим днем. Ночью эти хищники наиболее активны, обычно нападая на любое животное, которое достаточно близко подходит к их тяжелым челюстям. Некоторые сообщения фактически показывают, что эти аллигаторы едят туши криль-акул, но неизвестно, умерли ли эти акулы по естественным причинам или были убиты солегатором.

Пока все.
Как вам переводы?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 29.09.19 13:59. Заголовок: Ну, норм...


Ну, норм.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 29.09.19 14:49. Заголовок: Спасибо.Не знаю,что ..


Спасибо.Не знаю,что после Неа делать.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 16.03.20 19:55. Заголовок: Hello, Pavel! I prom..


Hello there!
I promised to enrich the Neocene project with English translations, and I keep it. So here's a translation of description of sousaphone from the Animalcularium - hope you'll like it:

Sousaphone (Tubafon suzafon)
Order Heterotrichida
Family Stentoridae
Habitat: fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere, in temperate and warm climate zones
Small living funnels with fans of cilia, sitting on underwater objects (rocks, plants etc.), can be found in still fresh waters of small water bodies and river backwaters of neocene. These are sousaphones, the descendants of Stentor species of the human era.
Sousaphones are very large (up to 15 mm high) ciliates, resembling their ancestors. The stalk is hair-thin at the base, but gradually thickens, and at a height of about 10 mm merges into a funnel, which can stretch up to 13-14 mm in diameter. The funnel with the cytostome in its bottom is surrounded with rows of cilia, which can reach 10 mm long. Sousaphones effectively yield their organic food (bacteria, algae etc.) from the surrounding water by beating of such fans.
Sousaphones have inherited the contractile ability of the cells from their ancestors and have brought it to perfection. A disturbed ciliate first fulminantly coils its stalk in one plane (now resembling the sousaphone instrument, after which it is named), and then shrinks into a ball about 5 mm in diameter. When necessary, sousaphone can leave its substrate to swim by means of the cilia, like its ancestors stentors did. The ciliate’s body elongates considerably during swimming and loses its typical shape.
Symbiotic zoochlorellae often occur inside the cells of sousaphones, they give the ciliate a greenish-yellowish tint, while the cell itself is hyaline. A macronucleus, several micronuclei and a contractile vacuole are visible under the cell envelope. The ciliate receives a part of required organic substances from the symbiotic zoochlorellae. This species often becomes a prey of predators like worms, rotifers and fish fry. Only its growth and multiplication rates save it from them.
Sousaphone reproduces by mitosis around once per day. This process can be preceded by conjugation (but not necessarily). In adverse conditions, the animal produces thick-walled cysts and loses moisture significantly, keeping viable with this.
This protozoan species was discovered by Biolog, a forum member

So, how is it?

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Из скромности умолчу.




Пост N: 5215
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 16.03.20 20:08. Заголовок: Биолог пишет: So, h..


Биолог пишет:

 цитата:
So, how is it?


What do you think about the complete translation of "Animalcularium"? I think our "Bestiary" needs for new translations badly.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 17.03.20 13:07. Заголовок: Автор I will keep w..


Автор
I will keep working! Another one will come soon.

Corrected several typos in the text above.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 16.03.20 20:00. Заголовок: На перевод Неа, как ..


На перевод Неа, как обычно всем пофиг.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 17.03.20 20:44. Заголовок: Here's another: ..


Here's another:

Kraken ciliate (Teuthosoma horribilis)
Order Evaginogenida
Family Dendrosomidae
Habitat: still fresh waters of temperate climate of the Northern Hemisphere.
Some sucking ciliates (subclass Suctoria) of holocene possessed a special way of nutrition, atypical for this group of protozoans. They became totally sessile and lost the cytostome and cilia. Instead of the cilia, they got tentacles and vesicles to discharge enzymes for prey digestment into the medium, then the prey sucked directly into a digestive vacuole.
In neocene, one of their descendants developed further this way of nutrition. The kraken ciliate, inhabiting fresh waters of lakes and river backwaters, became a colonial form: its dendriform branching colonies attached to rocks, plants and other underwater objects consist of 15-20 individuals and are about 15 mm tall. Separate zooids, 3-4 mm large, sit on the tips of stalks. They have an elongated shape and bear tufts of 8-10 long flexible tentacles on the front end of the cell, which makes them distantly resemble squids (hence the species name). The zooid cells and their stalks are colorless and hyaline.
Kraken ciliate is a voracious predator. When a zooid catches a prey, other also lean towards it to help digest the prey, and have their shares of food. Apart from other protozoans, due to its size, kraken ciliate consumes small crustaceans (both larvae and adult), eggs of small invertebrates, larvae of mollusks and other small animals. Potent enzymes allow it to soften even the shells of adult crustaceans. The same enzymes serve for protection of the colony by repelling small planarians and mollusks.
Kraken ciliate reproduces the same way as its ancestors: its zooids bud. Buds have cilia and swim away to settle in a suitable place, shed the cilia and give rise to a new colony. Sometimes this happens on the body of an animal (e. g. on a mollusk shell), and the ciliate can travel with it.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 17.03.20 22:01. Заголовок: Maybe, the word "..


Maybe, the word "infusorian" is better in this context instead of "ciliate", isn't it?

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 18.03.20 13:26. Заголовок: Автор I don't t..


Автор
I don't think so. See this link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infusoria
The language does undergo changes with time. Here is another link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliate

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 18.03.20 18:59. Заголовок: A third translation ..


A third translation is finished:

Ichthyocinete (Ichthyocineta symbiotica)
Order Endogenida
Family Acinetidae
Habitat: all oceans of the Earth, bathyal zone.
Marine sucking ciliates (subclass Suctoria) in holocene used to inhabit shallow depths, living on many substrates, including animal bodies (fish, cetaceans), and feeding on various food. One of their descendants mastered great depths and entered into a symbiosis with fish.
Ichthyocinetes live at depths of hundreds of meters, almost exclusively on the bodies of fish, usually on the sides, less often on fins. It is a quite large (1-1.2 mm tall) ciliate. An oval or almost spherical cell sits on a thin stalk and is covered with a goblet-shaped lorica (additional proteinaceous coat). The front end of the body bears a tuft of 10-15 tubular tentacles, each having an extrusome (vesicle) with digestive liquor.
Inhabiting the fish body, ichthyocinetes get special food at their disposal: unicellular fish parasites, particularly glowing swarmers of photopiscidium (Photopiscidium bathichthybolis). Moreover, ichthyocinetes capture them both before they are swallowed by the fish, and when a new generation exits from a cyst in the fish’s skin. When a captured photopiscidium swarmer is digested extracellularly, its symbionts – the ciliate rods (Photobacterium endoprotistum) – fall out into the water and partly are also captured and digested by the ichthyocinete (as a result, their luminescence stops). One ichthyocinete individual can capture simultaneously several photopiscidium swarmers and/or bacteria. Thus, ichthyocinetes at least partially protect the fish from photopiscidium and other parasites in exchange for treat. At the same time they interfere with unmasking of the host fish by the colonies of glowing parasites, and save it from predators.
Ichthyocinete reproduces the same way its ancestors did: by budding. The swarmer buds(around 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter) have cilia and swim away to settle in new places. In the deep, where these protozoans live, such places usually are represented by fish bodies. Less often, they settle on organic particles which come from upper layers of water – in this case they relocate onto the bodies of pelagic worms or crustaceans and passively wait for relocation onto a fish body, when a fish eats those animals. The swarmers of ichthyocinete have large trichocysts that launch long acerate anchoring filaments to attach to a fish body. Hundreds of swarmers (and, accordingly, new ichthyocinete individuals) can accumulate on one fish. They exchange their hereditary material by conjugation.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 19.03.20 19:44. Заголовок: Let's proceed wi..


Let's proceed with a new one:

Sheltering funnel (Infundibulum refugium)
Order Sessilida
Family Zoothamnidae
Habitat: all tropical seas of the Earth.
Colonial marine and freshwater ciliates (Vorticella, Carchesium, Zoothamnium and other) existed in the human era. They formed dendriform or feather-shaped colonies, consisting of various numbers of goblet-shaped cells (only several to hundreds), on solid substrates. One of their descendants became a common inhabitant of warm marine shallow waters of neocene, it lives on rocks, seaweeds and other underwater objects.
The sheltering funnel, just like its ancestors, forms branching dendriform colonies up to 5 cm tall and about 4 cm in diameter on a single stalk, which is about 2 cm long. The zooids (2-3 mm in diameter) of the colony face cytostome upward and slightly to the center. The peripheral branches of the colony are longer than the inner ones, which gives the colony a funnel-like shape. The top zooids on peripheral elongated branches are larger than others (4-5 mm) and bear long (up to 12-13 mm) slightly thickened cilia at the outer side of the colony. The beating of these cilia effectively drives food particles into the cytostomes of colony members (both own and other zooids), which allows to surpass smaller competitors in getting food.
The colonies of sheltering funnel seem white under natural illumination because of light refraction in small hyaline zooid cells.
A disturbed colony of sheltering funnel instantly contracts the stalk and branches, shrinking into a ball about 1.5 cm in diameter. With this, the outer cilia of the peripheral zooids are not retracted, but pile up in a roof shape (hence the species name), covering the colony from the top.
The reproduction cycle of sheltering funnel is the same that in its ancestors: differentiated macrozooids transform into rather large (up to 4-5 mm) free-swimming “swarmers”, which secede from the mother colony, settle on a substrate and give rise to a new colony. The “swarmer” can settle and give a new colony on bodies of various animals (e. g. on mollusk shells), and if the animal is motile, the colony travels together with it.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 20.03.20 21:09. Заголовок: And another one: Ba..


And another one:

Bathytrichodine (Bathytrichodina parasitivora)
Order Mobilida
Family Trichodinidae
Habitat: all oceans of the Earth, bathyal zone.
Trichodines were specialized ciliates of holocene, inhabiting bodies and gills of fish. Their body was flattened-convex, usually in the shape of a thick one-sidely convex lens. The bottom surface of such lens, adjoining to the fish’s body, had an attachment sucker disk with a concave center and a ring of of radial cytoskeletal denticles. The cytostome (cellular mouth) was on the top, surrounded by a ring of cilia.
In neocene, the bathytrichodine, inhabiting the bodies of deepsea fish, has kept these features. Its cell, about 0.7-0.8 mm in diameter, has the same lens-shaped appearance. The attachment disk has 30 denticles, diverging from the center, and is surrounded with a ring of cilia. The upper ring around the cytostome consists of long, slightly thickened cilia.
The ciliate creeps freely across the fish’s body by means of movement of the cilia of the lower ring, but it also can detach to swim freely – usually this happens when the host dies. But the fish’s body gives it a plentiful treat – it can catch swarmers of photopiscidium (Photopiscidium bathichthybolis) and digest them. Moreover, the ciliate does this including during rupture of a mature cyst of the parasite on the fish’s skin. Bathytrichodines can sense the presence of the cysts by their luminescence (the ciliate rods often survive in new swarmers) and creep closer to them, thus demonstrating positive phototaxis. Unlike its ancestors, which were partial parasites of fish, bathytrichodine helps the fish get rid of parasites in exchange for food.
Bathytrichodine reproduces by simple division, like its ancestors: the fission occurs parallel to the sucker disk, and the new cell grows cilia and a new sucker disk to swim away and settle in a new place, more precisely, on a fish body. Usually, such swarming ciliates soar motionless in the water column and are activated only at the emergence and subsequent enhancement of odor of a possible host.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 22.03.20 21:10. Заголовок: Here's another: ..


Here's another:

Photopiscidium (Photopiscidium bathichthybolis)
Order: insertae sedis
Family: insertae sedis
Habitat: all oceans of the Earth, bathyal zone.
One of marine holocenic ciliates – Cryptocaryon from Prostomatea class – had adapted to parasitize on fish, causing a disease named cryptocaryonosis (“marine ichthyophthiriosis”). This parasite formed cysts in the fish’s skin, with new swarmers forming inside them. Some descendants of this species changed their life style in neocene.
Photopiscidium lives in deep waters of oceans and parasitizes on deepwater fish. A mature swarmer appears as an oval or ovoid cell about 0.5 mm in diameter, covered with cilia, with a bean-shaped macronucleus and a small micronucleus. It glows from inside with a bluish light – its cytoplasm contains symbiotic bacteria ciliate rods (Photobacterium endoprotistum) as several aggregations. Bacteria receive food (which is hard to find in the deep of the ocean) from the ciliate in exchange for help in infecting fish.
Glowing ciliates soar in the water column and attract young and small fish, which eat them. Inside the fish’s intestine, the ciliate produces potent enzymes to pierce through the intestinal wall, get into the bloodstream and settle in the host’s skin, along the way consuming the fish’s body substances and feeding them to their symbiotic bacteria. At this stage of invasion, part of the bacteria sometimes dies from the ciliate’s enzymes. In the fish’s skin, photopiscidium forms cysts, the cell repeatedly divides inside it. The cyst grows up to 1.5-2 mm with this, and glows with intensity depending on the number of ciliate rods that have survived in the new cells. In favorable conitions, the bacterial population restores rapidly.
Over time, the cyst ruptures, and a new portion (several dozens) of new swarmers comes out. In the water, they feed freely for some time, swallowing new living ciliate rods, and then, once they acquire sufficiently bright glowing, they are swallowed by a fish.
Dozens of such cysts can appear on one fish, and it gleams like the night starry sky. Such gleaming attracts other fish that feed by predation, and photopiscidium gets a chance to enter another victim’s body even without leaving the previous one. But this rarely happens at great depths.
Fish have their own protection from this parasite – dangers await the swarmers before they infect and just before they exit from the cysts: sucking infusoria ichthyocinetes (Ichthyocineta symbiotica) and creeping ciliates bathytrichodines (Bathytrichodina parasitivora) inhabit the fish skin, and they often feed on the photopiscidium’s swarmers.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 24.03.20 20:28. Заголовок: Proceeding again... ..


Proceeding again...

Iridescent noctiluca (Multiluca versicolor)
Order Noctilucales
Family Noctilucaceae
Habitat: tropical and moderately warm seas worldwide.
In the human era, some marine flagellates had adapted to repel enemies by bright light flashes of bioluminescence. The organisms of this kind in human era were the noctiluci (Noctiluca), which used to flare brightly when disturbed. Forming large aggregations, they caused sea mareel (or milky sea) on large areas. Their descendants in warm and temperate seas of neocene have kept many of their features, but the evolution of some of them took new directions. The iridescent noctiluca became one of such species.
This species became colonial from solitary: dividing cells, 3-4 mm in diameter, do not come apart and form laminar coenobia resembling those in a holocenic alga Gonium. The coenobia in the iridescent noctiluca are 15-16 mm wide and consist of 8-32 identical cells enclosed in a collective slimy capsule.
The iridescent noctiluca has inherited the cellular structure from its ancestors: it has a cellular mouth and a modified contractile flagellum tentacle, and also fat inclusions in the cytoplasm, which allow the cells to soar in the water column.
When a coenobium is disturbed, all of its cells flare up brightly, simultaneously then separately, and the bioluminescence color can be different in different cells within one coenobium, and with this the colony shimmers with reddish, yellowish, bluish and greenish light. Such illumination will repel almost any dinoflagellate hunter.
The ways of reproduction in the iridescent noctiluca are the same that in its ancestors, but adjusted for colonial life style: either the coenobium breaks into separate cells and they give rise to new colonies, or the cells bud within the coenobium. Both ways occur equally often and alternate with each other. In favorable conditions, iridescent noctiluci multiply in great numbers and cause a bright shimmering mareel which gleams with all colors of the spectrum.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 25.03.20 13:59. Заголовок: Fixed some typos in ..


Fixed some typos in the text above. Will proceed with another one soon.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 26.03.20 18:20. Заголовок: Another one is done:..


Another one is done:

Sundew bodonid (Endobodo droserae)
Order Bodonida
Family Bodonidae
Habitat: outskirts of the Mediterranean basin.
Bodonids were one of the most widespread groups of flagellates in small or even temporary, polluted freshwater ponds of holocene. They were abundant in puddles, ponds and wetlands, but preferred places where bacteria – their main food – multiply.
One of its descendants – the sundew bodonid – inhabits the pitcher-like traps of the pitcher-leaved sundew (Neodrosera nepenthifolia), which grows in arid conditions of outskirts of Mediterranean basin. These are very small (no more than 50 μm) flagellates – their habitats are too small in volume. The cells are ovoid, bearing two flagella (anterior and posterior) on the wider end. The flagella have large basal bodies, and a cytostome (cell mouth) is located in the bottom of the flagellar pocket. The entire surface of the cell is strengthened with microtubules that underlay the cellular membrane – this allows to maintain a constant cell shape and to move in a viscous medium. The posterior flagellum is shortened (three times shorter than the anterior one) and bears the function of driving bacteria and other food into the cytostome. The cell often has several (up to 5-6) digestive vacuoles filled with food and appearing dark, almost black.
In arid conditions of Mediterranean basin, this species has found a habitat and a food source in the trap leaves of the sundew, where some moisture remains. Prey caught by the sundew and partly digested always can be found there, and this prey becomes a substrate for bacteria, and the bacteria, in turn, are food for the sundew bodonid. This species is a commensal that eats from the sundew’s table, although it partially performs a cleaning function: it prevents spoilage of the sundew’s digestive fluid by eating bacteria. The cell wall of this species is more durable than in its ancestor, so that it can withstand the digestive action of the fluid in the sundew’s leaves.
In adverse conditions, the flagellate can form cysts, in which it keeps viable for a long time (up to several weeks). Usually, this happens when the aerial part of the plant dries due to lack of moisture. The cysts are easily carried by the wind and driven into the traps of other sundews. Also, the are easily transmitted on the feet of insects that managed to escape from the plant’s traps.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 27.03.20 19:57. Заголовок: Another one... Glas..


Another one...

Glassy drosarcella (Drosarcella vitrea)
Order Arcellinida
Family Arcellidae
Habitat: outskirts of Mediterranean basin.
Some amoebas known to humans were different from their relatives by the presence of a shell that protected them from external impacts. The shell could be formed by different ways: either by producing structural material (chitin, silica) by the cell itself or by deposition of phagocytized and undigested particles (usually mineral) on the cell surface.
In neocene, the descendants of testate amoebas have mastered various ecological niches, but one species, the glassy drosarcella, became a commensal of the insectivorous plant pitcher-leaved sundew.
This species is a descendant of Arcella genus, which had inhabited fresh water, including puddles and wetlands. It is a small (about 0.2 mm) amoeba that produces a bilayer test in the shape of a one-sidedly convex lens with an aperture underneath. The inner layer of the test is brown chitin (like in the ancestors), and it is covered with a layer of silica (silicon dioxide) from outside, which gives the amoeba’s test a glass shine and a reflective ability. There is an aperture in the bottom side of the test, with several pseudopodia protruding from it, which gives the amoeba a mushroom-like shape.
The reflective “glazed” test protects the amoeba from the sun of the Mediterranean basin, where this species finds food and moisture in the pitchers of the pitcher-leaved sundew. Climate drying, caused by closing of the Strait of Gibraltar and drying of the Mediterranean Sea, made this species to back off to such an unusual habitat. There, it eats from the sundew’s table, feedind on its prey. It creeps across the internal walls of a pitcher and down into the liquid – along the sundew’s hair and on floating captured prey. In order to avoid being digested by the plant’s digestive enzymes, the animal keeps in the topmost layer of the liquid, where the concentration of enzymes is the least. In the conditions of the Mediterranean basin, this amoeba lives almost exclusively in the trap leaves of the sundew.
Drosarcella reproduces by division. The cell partly “flows out” of the aperture, its nucleus and other organelles divide, and formation of a new test starts. In adverse conditions, the amoeba can form thick-walled cysts, which is preceded by full exiting of the cell from its test. The cysts are transmitted by insects.

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Пост N: 2975
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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 28.03.20 20:05. Заголовок: Another one... Inse..


Another one...

Insectivorous droseroflugia (Droseroflugia insectivora)
Order Arcellinida
Family Difflugiidae
Habitat: outskirts of Mediterranean basin.
Some testate amoebas known in the human era did not synthesize their tests themselves, but deposited undigested particles (usually mineral) captured by phagocytosis on the cell surface, where they were agglutinated by an organic matrix.
In neocene, one of their descendants, the insectivorous droseroflugia, settled in the traps of pitcher-leaved sundew on outskirts of the Mediterranean basin, and adapted to make shelter from particles of the plant’s prey. This is almost the sole habitable place for relics of freshwater microbiota after aridization of this terrain.
This amoeba is the same size as drosarcella – about 0.2 mm. Inhabiting the trap leaves of the sundew and ingesting microparticles of its prey, droseroflugia excretes solid undigested particles onto its surface and agglutinates with an organic matrix. Therefore, the outer appearance of its test is variable and depends on the sundew’s prey. But generally the test consists of solid particles obtained from insects captured by the sundew: microscopic parts of their shells, antennae, legs, wings etc. All this creates a variegated spotted shell on the amoeba, and it protects the protozoan from the sun. The test is bell-shaped with a wide aperture in the bottom, from which the amoeba’s pseudopodia protrude.
The life style of this species is the same as in drosarcella, but it is commonly found on the surface of the liquid in the traps, or creeping on partly submerged prey.
Droseroflugia multiplies by division with the same mechanism as in drosarcella. In adverse conditions, this species forms cysts that are spread by insects.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 29.03.20 19:59. Заголовок: And a slime mold: “..


And a slime mold:

“Spelean sulfur” (Sulfophysarum spelaeus)
Order Fuscisporida
Family Physaridae
Habitat: caves of North America (the Appalachians).
The slime molds (myxomycetes) are a quite widespread group of holocenic fungoid organisms inhabiting moist places in temperate forests of all continents. They play an important role as decomposers of organic remains and regulators of bacterial populations. Some of their descendants in neocene mastered new ecological niches, and one species has relocated to caves, having adapted to specific life conditions.
“Spelean sulfur” is a descendant of Physarum genus which had lived mainly on dead wood. The plasmodium of this species appears as a thin and soft pale yellow moist crust permeated with a dendriform network of growth tubules. It is a single large multinucleated cell that is the vegetative stage of the organism. The plasmodium can move slowly (about 5 cm per hour), and simultaneously grow from the edges. During sporulation, the plasmodium stops moving and covers with a tough coat. Sporangia of the same color, about 1 cm in diameter on small stipes, appear on it. They are covered with cellulose coat and open from the base. Colorless spores also have cellulose coats, and are spread (and partly eaten) by cave insects and mites. Myxamoebas – amoeboid gametes – emerge from spores that found favorable conditions with proper moisture and temperature. Fusing in pairs, they give rise to new plasmodia.
This slime mold feeds on guano and organic remains of animals (birds and mammals) inhabiting the cave, and also on bacteria, which multiply in large numbers on these substrates. Feeding on bacteria, the plasmodium can creep on stone walls and even the arch of the cave; in both cases, the sporangia will hang down. Spores also can spawn new myxamoebas and new plasmodia on the walls and ceiling of the cave.
Insects that spread the spores of “spelean sulfur” are guided by light: the myxomycete gives off a yellowish glow, dim but clearly seen in the dark, and the cave brightens up with yellow stains, resembling deposits of native sulfur (hence the species’ name).
This species of slime molds was discovered by Biolog, a forum member

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 30.03.20 20:02. Заголовок: Here's the foram..


Here's the foraminifera:

Corallogerina (Corallogerina natans)
Order Globigerinida
Family Globigerinidae
Habitat: seas of warm and temperate climate around the globe.
In prehistoric and human eras, foraminifera held a special place among the marine protozoans, playing an immense role in geological processes. Their calcareous shells formed bottom sediments – the limestone and chalk. The thickness of these deposits reached dozens and hundreds of meters, and sometimes even kilometers. In neocene, this geological process continues, although the species composition of its participants has changed significantly.
Corallogerina is one of typical foraminifera of neocene, a descendant of Globigerina genus of human era. It inhabits warm and temperate seas at shallow depths (up to several meters) as a part of marine plankton. Their ancestors, globigerinas, were also planktonic foraminifera, their tests were thin and translucent, and extremely thin (like a spiderweb) pseudopodia protruded through the pores.
Corallogerina has inherited all of its ancestor’s traits, but the nuclei of agamont (diploid generation) in it divide repeatedly and give rise to an aggregate of cells, which do not secede and stay together. These cells cover with tests, and the colony resembles pieces of coral branches (hence the species name) soaring in the water column. The diameter of one cell in the test is small (2-3 mm), but the branching colony reaches 2-3 cm in length and consists of 10-15 haploid cells.
Each of these cells can then spawn gametes, and the gametes, by fusing, produce a zygote, which gives rise to a new agamont generation, thus continuing the life cycle.
The tests in corallogerina are thin, spherical, almost transparent, bearing small spikes on the outer surface, and pores through which extremely thin pseudopodia protrude and surround the cell with an arachnoid halo.
The tests of corallogerina compose a significant part (half and more) of bottom calcareous sediments of neocenic seas, forming very thick deposits of lime ooze, up to 4-5 meters thick.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 31.03.20 20:06. Заголовок: Replaced "silt&#..


Replaced "silt" with "ooze" in the text above. Another one coming soon.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 01.04.20 19:26. Заголовок: Here are heliochromo..


Here are heliochromococci:

Golden heliochromococcus (Heliochromococcus aureus)
Order Arthracanthida
Family Heliochromococcidae
Habitat: tropical seas around the globe.
Starting from early Paleozoic, one group of marine planktonic protozoans had mastered the construction of skeletons mainly from silica (SiO2) and entered into symbiosis with algae to obtain energy of sunlight. These are radiolaria – very peculiar and beautiful marine microorganisms. In neocene, one of the groups of these organisms began to evolve towards total autotrophy.
Heliochromococci are spherical radiolaria of Acantharia group inhabiting surface (up to several meters) layers of water in warm tropical seas of neocene. Just like their ancestors, they synthesize skeletons from strontium sulfate (SrSO4, celestine). These are small pelagic organisms about 0.5-1 mm in diameter. Their skeleton appears as two cribriform spheres nested in each other and connected by beams. Both spheres are transparent like glass, and shine in the sun. The radius of the inner sphere is ½ of that of the outer sphere, and it is entirely occupied with a large central capsule filled with golden-yellow zooxanthellae. Ectoplasm is between two spheres, and also covers the outer sphere from outside. Numerous pseudopodia, extremely thin like spiderweb, stretch out of it. The outer surface of the outer sphere is smooth, but bears 20 thin straight spikes arranged in a regular icosahedral pattern. The sphere’s walls between the spikes bear thickenings arranged checkerwise and performing the role of optical lenses to provide zooxanthellae with light.
Zooxanthellae have undergone assimilation in the cells of heliochromococci and lost the ability to live independently. And the radiolarian, due to this, switched to full autotrophy – it provides the zooxanthellae with mineral substances from the water, and they provide it with organic substances and energy by photosynthesis.
The life cycle in heliochromococci is the same as in their ancestors: a fully formed organism produces flagellated zoospores, which lose flagella and produce their own skeletons to give rise to a new organism. During zoospore formation, a part of zooxanthellae passes to the spore and then to the new organism.
In favorable conditions, heliochromococci can multiply in large numbers, causing a golden sea bloom.
Blue-green heliochromococcus (Heliochromococcus cyaneus) is a species with green zoochlorellae, its spikes are thickened at the ends and have a bluish tint (the color of strontium sulfate). This species causes a bluish-green sea bloom.
Red heliochromococcus (Heliochromococcus ruber) contains reddish-orange zooxanthellae and has thin spikes branched at the ends, and causes orange-red sea bloom.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 03.04.20 19:38. Заголовок: And here's the f..


And here's the final protozoan species! Now for bacteria!

Azure vanadella (Vanadella azurea)
Order Vanadellata
Family: Vanadelloideae
Habitat: tropical seas around the globe, near-surface and middle layers of water (up to dozens of meters deep).
Radiolaria (phylum or subphylum Radiozoa) in holocene were well-known for their ability to form cytoskeletons from silica (SiO2), and one group from strontium sulfate (SrSO4). However, the sea water contains many compounds of other elements, and one of the main places is held by vanadium which is present there as the vanadyl ion (VO2+). Vanadium is toxic as pure oxides, but as vanadyl it was used by some marine organisms of holocene. These organisms learned to include vanadium in cofactors of enzymes (some algae and bacteria) and in protein molecules with further accumulation in special cells (tunicates, particularly sea squirts – as a way of protection against predators). By the neocene time, some radiolarians also switched to using vanadium compounds to produce their cytoskeletons.
Vanadellas (Vanadellae) are a new class of neocenic radiolarians. Their main distinctive feature is the cytoskeletons made of complex silicates with vanadium and calcium (such composition is inherent for vanadium minerals cavansite and pentagonite). These skeletons consist of intersecting ring structures with common intersection points on the skeleton’s “poles”. Tufts of rather long needles go from these points, and both rings and needles can be smooth or spiked. The entire skeleton is stained a color with various tints depending on the vanadium content: azure, sapphire, saturated blue of various tints.
The central capsule in vanadellas is not separated from the ectoplasm: their cells do not contain zooxanthellae, they are totally heterotrophic. This allows them to inhabit greater depths than their relatives, who depend on the symbionts’ photosynthesis. The life cycle in vanadellas does not differ from that of their ancestors and relatives. Vanadellas feed on bacteria and organic particles suspended in the water.
In the azure vanadella, the cells are 0.2-0.4 mm large, have 5 rings and 5 needles in the skeleton, which is covered with small spikes and entirely stained bright-blue.
By converting vanadium, vanadellas take part in its mineralization, enriching the bottom sediments with it. Multiplying in large numbers, vanadellas cause water bloom, giving it a color corresponding the color of the vanadella’s skeleton.
Turquoise vanadella (Vanadella caerulea) has 7 smooth rings and needles stained bright blue with a turquoise tint. It inhabits greater depths of water than the azure vanadella (30-40 m).
Purple vanadella (Vanadella purpurea) has 6 rings and needles covered with spikes and stained purple-blue. It inhabits subsurface layers of the water (first few meters).

Oh, and I will also translate my plants (sundew and filodunaliella) and one animal (beelynx).

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 04.04.20 20:00. Заголовок: Replaced "althou..


Replaced "although" with "however" in the text above. The first bacterium coming soon!

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 05.04.20 17:39. Заголовок: Bacteria are here no..


Bacteria are here now!

Philanthomycete (Philanthomyces antibioticus)
Order Actinomycetales
Family Streptomycetaceae
Habitat: Fennoscandian forests, a symbiont in burrows of hymenopterans
Streptomycetes (Streptomyces genus) were one of main tools for humans to control infectious diseases – humans obtained dozens of antibiotics of various action spectrum. These filamentous bacteria produced erythromycin, tetracyclines, levomycetin, nystatin, amphotericins, neomycin, vancomycin, and many other antibiotics, and also other important substances (tacrolimus, allosamidin and other). Representatives of streptomycetes entered into symbiosis with insects – they lived in pockets of antennae of female beewolf (Philanthus triangulum) and protected its eggs and larvae from soil mycelial fungi. In neocene, this symbiosis got further development, and the relationships between the actinomycete and the insect became even stronger. A new actinomycete – philanthomycete – emerged in the process of their joint evolution.
Philanthomycete is a typical representative of actinomycetes. Its cells appear as thin branching aseptate filaments which divide into thinner substrate filaments and thicker aerial filaments. The aerial filaments form dense tufts with chains of thick-walled spores formed on their ends by successive fragmentation. The filaments and spores are hyaline, filaments up to 1.3 μm thick.
This species is a symbiont of a crabronid wasp named beelynx (Neophilanthus apilynx). The actinomycete is present as spores in the antennal pockets of female wasps. The spores germinate quickly on the walls of burrow chambers and on the prey – paralyzed bees. The actinomycete forms a thin white powdery coating there. A wasp hatching from the pupa touches the coating with antennae to gather spores into the mycangia.
The main help for the wasp from the bacterium is protection: the bacterium has inherited the ability to produce antibiotics from its ancestors. Philanthomycete produces large amounts of philanthomycin – a nystatin derivative which is a potent antifungal antibiotic with a broad action spectrum. Philanthomycin prevents the growth of any fungi inside the insect’s burrow, thereby protecting the larva and its forage from being destroyed. After eating a prey with the bacterial coating, the wasp’s larvae become resistant to fungal infections, including Entomophthorales and Cordyceps that are specialized insect parasites. In exchange, the bacterium receives nutrition – parts of the wasp’s prey and excrements and secretions of the larva.
The ancestors of this species were less specialized and inhabited a broader spectrum of niches – soil, surface of plants, organic-polluted water etc. But philanthomycete, due to the close symbiotic relationships, is no longer found outside the wasp’s burrows.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 06.04.20 19:13. Заголовок: And a clostridium is..


And a clostridium is done:

Asporoclostridium dolichomusci
Order Clostridiales
Family Clostridiaceae
Habitat: tropics and subtropics of the Old World – Africa, Zinj Land, Asia and southern Europe.
In human era, clostridia were very abundant group of anaerobic soil bacteria, although some species inhabited (permanently or temporarily) human and animal intestine. Some species were deadly dangerous for humans due to very potent exotoxins, e. g. agents of botulism (Clostridium botulinum), tetanus (C. tetani) and gas gangrene (C. perfringens and similar species). In neocene, some clostridia have taken a new evolutionary step: they have lost the ability to produce spores because of favorable conditions they found after entering into symbiosis with dipteran insects.
Asporoclostridium dolichomusci is a descendant of C. perfringens. It is a large (3-4 μm long and 2 μm thick) gram-positive, obligately anaerobic rod, inhabiting pockets of digestive tract of some carnivorous flies (particularly, infectioflies and sambios). This bacterium is a chemoorganotroph, and inside the insect’s organism it uses the host’s food for nutrition, without harming the fly. But when it enters the body of a living vertebrate animal, the picture changes dramatically. The bacterium produces a potent exotoxin (neurotoxin), which acts like the botulism toxin of C. botulinum and tetanospasmin of C. tetani, and also some hemolytic enzymes. This complex quickly (without “aid” of other bacteria in 2-3 days) kills the animal since the fly injects this “biological weapon” with its proboscis directly into the tissues and bloodstream of the victim, causing an instant sepsis.
When the fly shows up to “have lunch”, it sucks in a new portion of bacteria (which have multiplied in the victim’s body) with food. In fact, the symbiotic bacteria circulate between the fly and its victims, almost totally avoiding getting into the environment, which allowed them to do without endospores. Besides clostridia, this deadly microbiome of flies includes the muscine rod (a descendant of E. coli – a former inhabitant of animal intestines, including insects) and sambio staphylococcus (a descendant of S. aureus – a former member of human and animal normal microbiota).

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 07.04.20 15:53. Заголовок: Staphs are here! St..


Staphs are here!

Staphylococcus sambiorum
Order Bacillales
Family Staphylococcaceae
Habitat: tropics and subtropics of the Old World – Africa, Zinj Land, Asia and southern Europe.
Staphylococci – gram-positive cocci in bunches – were common inhabitants of human and animal organism in holocene. They also included very dangerous forms, e. g. Staphylococcus aureus. A descendant of this species entered into symbiosis with carnivorous dipteran insects and began to play an important role in their life.
Staphylococcus sambiorum inhabits the pockets of digestive tract of sambio and infectioflies, feeding on the insect’s food without harming it. When the fly bites a victim (a vertebrate animal), the bacterium enters the animal’s tissues and bloodstream and multiplies quickly, and simultaneously produces its main “weapon” – coagulase. This enzyme in this species possesses a very high activity and causes a very quick clotting of the animal’s blood directly in the blood vessels. This is a fatal process, resulting in a rather quick death of the victim. When the fly starts feeding on the carcass, the bacteria are sucked in through the proboscis, and the fly’s “biological weapon” is “reloaded”. The fly’s larvae receive the bacteria with food.
Morphologically, this species does not differ from its ancestors: it is a gram-positive coccus forming bunches. It is a facultative anaerobe, resistant to high concentrations of salt. A chemoorganotroph, a mesophile, resistant to immune responses of animals. Besides coagulase, S. sambiorum produces potent leukocidins (toxins that kill leukocytes) to protect itself from the immune system of the insect’s victim, and at the same time to help its neighbours – the muscine rod and clostridia.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 08.04.20 14:22. Заголовок: Another one... Legu..


Another one...

Leguminobacter neodroserae
Order Rhizobiales
Family Rhizobiaceae
Habitat: outskirts of the Mediterranean basin.
In holocene, some soil bacteria capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen did this in a peculiar and interesting way. The nitrogen fixers of Rhizobium genus formed nodules on plant roots (mainly of leguminous plants). In the nodules they, being provided with required nutrition and protection from oxygen (since nitrogen fixation is an anaerobic process) by the plant, in exchange provided the plant with fixed nitrogen in a metabolizable form. But rhizobia could also live freely in the soil, contributing to the soil part of nitrogen cycle, and underwent deep changes (formation of bacteroids) when entering into a plant root. In neocene, their descendants have kept and modified this ability, and have continued the symbiotic relationships with plants.
Leguminobacters differ from their ancestors in that they live only inside the tissues of plants, leguminous and some other families. And each plant species has its own species of bacteria, isolated from others. Morphologically, it is all the same gram-negative bacteroids, and they are still capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen anaerobically in the nodules. Their distinctive feature is that they mastered colonization of the plant’s vascular bundles and get to the ovules by them, and from there – to the embryos in seeds. During vegetative reproduction, they just pass into a new rooting plant. These are the ways they are transmitted to new host plants. This close union allowed such plants to settle in unsuitable, nitrogen-poor soils, but in some cases the bacteria form nodules only when the plant is short of nitrogen, the plant in this case sends a chemical signal to its symbionts.
The system of nitrogen fixation in leguminobacteria remained the same, but they began to form larger nodules (the size of a pea and larger) not only on roots, but also on other parts of the plant: on the stem and even on the leaves. The tissues of stems and leaves with this do not lose their photosynthetic function (the outer layers of the tissues of such nodule remain green). The nodules have internal partitions (compartments) that contribute to more uniform distribution of the bacterial mass and enlarge the area of absorbtion of the fixed nitrogen by the plant. The pulp of the nodules is stained pink and even red by leghemoglobin. Leguminobacteria have a defective metabolic system, and therefore they cannot live outside the host plant: if the plant itself is destroyed or a nodule is damaged, the bacteria quickly stop fixing the nitrogen and die.
The bacteroids of leguminobacteria are very small (about 0.1-0.2 μm) polymorphic cells with a single, partly incomplete murein layer in the cell wall. They are organoheterotrophs by the life style, totally dependent on the host plant. They are aerotolerant: they can live in the presence of oxygen, but the nitrogen fixation occurs only in anaerobic conditions. They do not form capsules and spores.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 09.04.20 20:06. Заголовок: The former E. coli....


The former E. coli...

Escherichia muscina
Order Enterobacteriales
Family Enterobacteriaceae
Habitat: tropics and subtropics of the Old World – Africa, Zinj Land, Asia and southern Europe.
In human era, enterobacteria were one of the most numerous and abundant groups of bacteria. Their members inhabited all available niches – water, soil, and animal (including invertebrates) and human organisms. Escherichia genus was the most common among all intestinal bacteria, partly very important intestinal symbionts and partly dangerous pathogens causing infections (toxigenic strains). Their descendants in neocene only weakly changed in general, but some have switched to another life style, taking advantage of the rapid evolution of fauna in the period of ecosystem recovery.
Escherichia muscina is the same gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, a chemoorganotroph. But it inhabits a new medium – the pockets of digestive tract of robberflies (infectioflies and sambio). Having entered into an animal’s body with the fly’s bite, it multiplies quickly and produces a set of potent toxins, the main role belonging to hemolysins. Being produced in large amounts, they cause a fulminant lysis of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the animal blood, which is fatal to the animal. Along with them, the animal is affected by the clostridial neurotoxins and staphylococcal coagulase. This species hardly produces endotoxins, the cells just do not have time to be disrupted to discharge the exotoxins – the affected animal dies too quickly.
E. muscina, like clostridia and staphylococci, multiplies quickly in the doomed animal’s body, and the fly gets a chance to “reload” its “biological weapon”. And the fly’s larvae, feeding on the carcass, acquire their own microbiome of deadly symbionts.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 10.04.20 17:37. Заголовок: Another one. Photob..


Another one.

Photobacterium endoprotistum
Order “Vibrionales”
Family Vibrionaceae
Habitat: all oceans of the globe, bathyal zone.
Photobacteria, known in human era, had a peculiar feature that allowed them to develop a specific “quorum sensing” – they were able to glow. The luciferin-luciferase system allowed them to emit bluish light upon forming cell aggregates. Their descendants in neocene have kept this ability, but switched to another life style.
Photobacterium endoprotistum is a medium-sized (1-1.5 μm) rod-shaped bacterium with rounded ends, one of which bears a single polar flagellum. This species is still gram-negative by the structure of the cell wall, but the cell is covered with a slimy capsule from outside. The species is a chemoorganotroph, and does not form spores. It is a facultative anaerobe, a psychrophile, and a moderate barophile by the requirements to the medium it lives in. It finds favorable conditions in the deep of the oceans.
These bacteria can live both in the water and inside the cells of a parasitic ciliate Photopiscidium bathichthybolis which swallows them during the stage of a young swarmer. Inside the cell, the bacteria are protected against the ciliate’s digestive enzymes by capsules. They lose flagella and feed from the ciliate while it parasitizes on a fish body.
Accumulating in the ciliate’s cytoplasm, they start glowing (quorum reactions turns on). As the ciliate passes along the fish organism to the sites of final settling, the bacteria partly die and the luminescence weakens, but newly released swarmers replenish the losses. Also, the bacterial number increases at the expense of the nutrients from the ciliate’s cell.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 11.04.20 18:01. Заголовок: The first cyanobacte..


The first cyanobacterium! Just two more descriptions to go!

Nostoc volvoxoides
Order Nostocales
Family Nostocaceae
Habitat: still freshwaters of temperate climate in the Northern Hemisphere.
Cyanobacteria have been the largest and the most important group of photosynthesizing autotrophic prokaryotes during the whole history of the Earth. They inhabited fresh and saline water bodies and the soil. Some species entered into symbiosis with fungi as part of lichens, and even with flowering plants, in the latter case the plant gets required nitrogen since cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Members of Nostoc genus were common in fresh water bodies and in moist soils where they formed spherical jelly-like colonies. Some of their descendants in neocene have switched to another life style.
Nostoc volvoxoides has kept the cellular morphology of its ancestors. Its cells, with a membrane system (thylakoids) bearing photosynthetic pigments, instead of chains form dense single-layer mats closed into hollow balls the size of a pea, covered with a gelatinous capsule. Large heterocysts (specialized cells that fix atmospheric nitrogen) inherited from ancestors stand out among the ball’s cells. Also, the species has large floater cells with gas bubbles in the cytoplasm, which allow it to soar in the subsurface water layers (and even to surface up and protrude from the water) where the colony gets maximum light and nitrogen.
The balls are stained usually blue-green; pale yellowish spherical heterocysts and almost hyaline “gas” cells stand out on them; both heterocysts and “gas” cells are 1.5-2 times larger than usual cells.
The cells of N. volvoxoides reproduce by fission, and daughter cells are deposited inside the ball, while mother cells die gradually. Thus, 2-3 daughter colonies form inside the ball, they are released via rupture of the mother colony as it dies.
In favorable conditions, N. volvoxoides multiplies in large numbers and causes blue-green water bloom. Living and dead colonies in this can stick together to form carpets (mats) on the water surface. The carpets reach 1-2 meters large and are so solid that insects and other small animals walk or crawl freely on them. Small numbers of this “alga” are consumed by herbivorous fish and also by land herbivorous mammals.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 13.04.20 15:33. Заголовок: Another cyanobacteri..


Another cyanobacterium:

Anabaena schizolemnae
Order Nostocales
Family Nostocaceae
Habitat: fresh waters of the North Hemisphere in cold climate zones, a symbiont of Schizolemna anabaenophila
During the whole history of life on the Earth, cyanobacteria repeatedly entered into symbiosis with various plants. Receiving “shelter” from the plant, they provided it with nitrogen which they fixed from the environment. Some species of such symbionts, particularly of Anabaena genus, inhabited tissues of aquatic plants, e. g. Azolla fern and angiosperms duckweeds (Lemna). Their descendants in neocene have evolved and changed according to the changes in the structure and life style of their hosts – the duckweeds.
Anabaena schizolemnae has undergone significant morphological changes. It has two morphologically different stages: a free stage living in water and a symbiotic stage living in the tissues of Schizolemna, a duckweed.
The free-living stage appears as long filaments composed of green barrel-shaped cells, alternating with large spherical yellowish heterocysts – this appearance is characteristic of ancestral and related forms. And the symbiotic stage appears as a heterocyst about 10 μm in diameter with two blue-green photosynthetic vegetative cells on the sides. These cells are 1.5 times smaller than the heterocyst, and provide its development. Such structure allows A. schizolemnae to provide the plant with nitrogen (fixed by heterocysts) at a maximum efficiency with keeping its own photosynthesis. A large number of such three-cell symbionts accumulates in the duckweed’s tissues, and the compactness allows to distribute more uniformly, giving the Schizolemna’s symbiotic tissues a brownish-green color. During vegetative reproduction of the host plant by fission of the leaflet, the symbiont’s cells distribute in it equally enough. In the Schizolemna’s growth process, the vegetative cells of A. schizolemnae divide to form new undifferentiated cells outside of the heterocyst. When their number in a chain reaches three, they secede and differentiate into a heterocyst and vegetative cells. Undifferentiated cells of A. schizolemnae penetrate even the ovules of the duckweed, and in rare cases of seed reproduction of the host plant, the seedlings already bear the symbiont in their tissues. In the fall, the duckweed plants stop the photosynthesis, accumulate starch and submerge into the water to winter there. In these conditions, A. schizolemnae forms spores that can winter in the duckweed’s tissues.
The free stage forms only when the symbionts for any reason fall out of the duckweed’s leaflet into the water. They cannot enter the organism of the same or another duckweed again, but instead they divide to restore filamentous structure, and live independently. Since such situation is quite rare, A. schizolemnae is almost absent in water blooms.

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ссылка на сообщение  Отправлено: 13.04.20 15:34. Заголовок: And now, only one sp..


And now, only one species of animalcularium remains! Will come soon!

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